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Salvador Dali's 'Lugubrious Game'

Salvador Dali's: Lugubrious Game


Phillip O’Sullivan ‘The Lugubrious Game’ The Writers and
Artists writings about this painting in the career of Salvador
Dali and Surrealism
Born May 11, 1904
Paradoxically we can see in Salvador Dali’s art a ‘Marquis de
Sade Justine/Juliette –like’ emphasis on violence and depravity as a
way of liberation and freedom for the imagination. A really
dead imagination to Dali is one of convention lacking all
surprise, innovation or shock-of-recognition: this type of
conventional art is/was all around the art community
even/then and now in Spain. Dalis young adult friend
Frederico Garcia Lorca and he agreed and utilized imagery of
decay and death in their drawings, poems and articles in
order to emphasize this and shock the viewer or reader into
seeing more sharply by these devices; opening their eyes by
threatening the view of what they saw.
Ending his period with the army in 1927Dali summered in
Cadaques with Garcia Lorca. While there Dali wrote a poem
titled “Saint Sebastián”, later published in L’Amic de les Aris
and the newspaper El Gallo. A drawing being subsequently
  Around this time in a letter from 1926 he wrote out of the
San Sebastia theme “this single eye, suddenly enlarged, encompasses
a whole scene of the bottom and surface of an ocean in which all poetic
suggestions navigate, and where all the plastic possibilities are stabilized”
(Finkelstein:30) The drawing has a pronounced encephalic aspect in a
headless torso with a fish apparatus emerging from the featureless absence.
It has no head.1 Arabic transparent typeface
  As quoted in haim finkelstein art and writing 1927 1942
salvador vdali
san sebastia letter “this single eye, suddenly enlarged,
encompasses a whole scene of the bottom and surface of an
ocean in which all poetic suggestions navigate, and where all
the plastic possibilities are stabilized” page 30
finkelstein.1926 This headless/heedless aspect of Dalis art
opens up Freudian possibilities free of moral censorship and
The well crafted poetic prose made an impact on the Catalan
literati. Dali created a metaphor of the arrow-riddled saint
discovering armour in his faith and the artist carefully letting
his imagery“ripen”, and Dali elaborated on his ideas about
painting being more accurate than the ‘reality’ of
photography. This argues for the greater psychological effect
possible in art. Dali is beginning in these Barcelona/Madrid
years to probe into his characteristic ‘paranoid critical
method’ of painting. He had earlier adopted a foppish dandy
personae for himself as we see first in self portrait with
Raphealish Neck and in a self portrait drawing from 1922.
 These ideas of ant decay, death and rotting donkeys, the
putrescent priests of convention (see also Batailles Lord
Ausch writing…….) is also prevalent in the extremely artistic
Film En Chien Andalu (The Andalusian Dogs) co-created in
1928-9 together with Bunuel another of Dalis Madrid art-
school friends, with whom he wrote the shooting script and
contributed graphic ideas including the famous cloud-
sun/eye-cutting scene early in the film. These three visual
artists, intelligent, sensitive and culturally aware, inhabited a
kind of ‘Madrid Art Academy and Barcellona artworld anti-art
faction’, they were against calm, ordered, sensible and
sentimental art. They were aware of Picasso, Miro and the
Paris artscene, collage and photography so much that
cubism to them, was, in being the most recently established
avant garde style, that it was this advanced art that had
become dead, conventional, and must be overthrown for
them to make their own mark. Even this modern art was
putrid, rotting and had to be expunged by shocking devices
and strategies. Despite their own moviemaking and
wide open to all kinds of creative allowances. It is Bataille,
whom he later meets in Paris, who is philosophically closer to
Dali at this point, than the Surrealist leader Andre Breton
later. Althought, realistically it is to Lorca whom he owes a
closer contemporary creative partnership in Spain.
incorporation of photagraphic devices such as in their own
‘collaging’. Notwithstanding this appreciation and cooptation
the necessity to ‘kill’ the old rot was paramount. For this
they armed themselves with de Sade, Freud and Surrealism.
 To create a valid Spanish ‘surrealism’ required an opposite
‘turgid sentimental realism’ to which their own extreme de
Sade hyper-reality could be opposed. To name the name the
name of their own ‘other’ (for all is ‘other’ to the other;
another other-as it were, though not to be too precious or
facetious about this obvious philosophical point) their
opposite numbers were competitively close and almost allied
in an overall artworld project. Yet sufficiently different from
their own coalescing creative purpose as to function fully as
‘other’; another cultural stream that they could
communicate with, understand and debate with. The
instrument of that artistic debate was the abstraction built-
into cubism, futurism, impressionism and expressionism: all
of them denying classic codes of realism, scientific
psychology and narrative; all essential ingredients in the
poems, films and drawings they were making. They were a
kind of proto-surrealist group or para-Dada; working
alongside a French anti-art movement from within Spain.
Their chosen talisman image was that of violence,
putrefaction, death, deacay and forbidden sexualities.
Everything else was rotten and culturally in a state of decay.
  One image in particular would stand out amoung the
Orphic encephalic torsos and knifelike vaginal/female
toothed visions such as appears in ‘Honey is Sweeter than
Blood’, the ‘San Sebastian’ encephalic drawing and
‘Apparatus with Hand’. It is the image of the ant strewn
corpse, the ants sucking blood juices from a rotting field
donkey in the Catalan countryside; a scene both Lorca and
Dali had frequently seen while out walking. This putrefaction
of ‘the rotting donkey’ kind appears to be a Dali expression
also for what Clement Greenberg would call, in another
context, Kitsch. Although, as one can easily imagine: each
today could apply the term/s to the other. The vividness of
this deadly talismanic device and its equally associated
scandalous tropes (encephalic torsos, dead heads, explicit
‘Freudian’ sex organs, burning objects, random correlations,
bodily distortions and erotic distortions generally) would
eventually be the miniaturist tool to prise open the Parisian
artworld to them. The minutiae of shock and perverse
seductions, coprophilic excrement, overt shit and sabotaging
fingerings (as uncovered here) would be his futureanti-art,
anti-research (he failed art theory in the Madrid academy)
approach to conquering the Paris art Gallery world.
In the meantime Barcelona welcomed these newcomers,
especially Dali in his new exhibitions at the druis Gallery……
As quoted in haim finkelstein art and writing 1927 1942
salvador vdali
san sebastia letter “this single eye, suddenly
enlarged,encompasses a whole scene of the bottom and
surface of an ocean in which all poetic suggestions navigate,
and where all the plastic possibilities are stabilized” page 30
how ironic then that greenberg may well have thought dalis
art putrescent in both their senses.
Art as the art of looking finlel 321926 circa
Honey is sweeter than blood 1927
apparatus and hand 1927
Lorcas exhibit of drawings 1927
lorca acting dead and his head appearing dead in dalis work
sweeter b
 a putrefied donkey buzzing with small minute hands
representing the beginning of spring \'poem\' Gaceta Literaria
soft and hard paradigm \'the sewing needles plunge into
small nickels soft and sweet\' \'poem of small things L\'Amic de
les Arts\'
totally anarchic ambiance\' pg 42 finkelstein
masson ernst tanguy lorca miro picasso arp
poetic autonomy ... of the image and of the imagination.
the putrefied ass 1928
catalogue note for an arp exhibition by breton \'that canaries
never sing sop well as when placed in the bottom of an
aquarium\' Oui 1 pg45
fellatio fingering coprophilia anal penetration shitting
wounds death killing putrefaction rotting decay fear of
homosexuality yet homoerotic imaginings.
Fratricide encephalic headless heedless masturbation
perversion copulation incest etc molestation absent sex
frustration freudian lacan
letting go inhibitions hysteria yet letting go devices for
letting go.
 Paranoid critical method not \'letting go\' no automatism
excrement blood blood tubes vessels spurting
what is repugnant/yet at bottom, desirable
murder/violence violation
terror fear desire fright sensitivity anal sadistic/masochist
domanatrix gala
the \'back\' that disdains him so he gets back at the back-
rejecting femininity- by sabotaging imagery; anal fingering
and the like. Coded camoflaged and disguised hidden.
Enlarged hands signifying masturbation 57 finkelstein
erotic provocations / incongruent with their surroundings ie
coded/hidden layered with other more exposed exposures/
explicit overt depravity disguising misogyny (even from
himself) or deliberate to be seen in future another day =
fascism. Counter pose bretons love of women deflected love
for more sympathetic too-close-to-home bataille
bataille thus much more affinity with dalki asthetic and
disguises codes and deeper meanings. A hidden love for
women empowered by hatred given dutch courage out of
fear of direct approach in opening stages of sufferagette age
dihide to hide a secret perversion by a revealed one hidden
layers of meaning
dialectics of the soft and hard hidden and overt perversions
1928 arps morphology beautiful
yet e arly in march 1929 script of en chien andalou with
boats vulva vagina uterus womb breasts soft forms
dali publishes article oui1 105 \'review of anti-artistic
tendencies\' march 1929 reviews peret french poems
review of lorcas poetry patina-artificial antique- equals caca
or shit waste products of the past fink 67
dalis \'poetry of the mass manufactured\' march 1928
 Arte Nouveuuae Collage Freud Bataille Breton Dali other
critics art historians,. Date Barcelona prior.
More beautiful before and after/ more complex characteristic
method later seminal and canononical
History of Dada Surrewalism New York Dada
Paris dada Magazines
Barcelona why surrealism there?
Barcelona characteristics
Paris reasons for step-up? Pressure of artscene Breton
bataille contesting.
Who Breton Philosophy?Who bataille. Philosophy
Batailles illustration
Barcelona pictures plus other \'significant\' examples
Prior to Paris 1929 stock market crash. Not so complex
imagery collage, freud etc surrealism
Dalí became intensely interested in film when he was young,
going to the theatre most Sundays. He was part of the era
where silent films were being viewed and drawing on the
medium of film became popular. He believed there were two
dimensions to the theories of film and cinema: \"things
themselves\", the facts that are presented in the world of the
camera; and \"photographic imagination\", the way the
camera shows the picture and how creative or imaginative it
looks.[67] Dalí was active in front of and behind the scenes
in the film world. He created pieces of artwork such as
Destino, on which he collaborated with Walt Disney. He is
also credited as co-creator of Luis Buñuel\'s surrealist film Un
Chien Andalou, a 17-minute French art film co-written with
Luis Buñuel that is widely remembered for its graphic
opening scene simulating the slashing of a human eyeball
with a razor. This film is what Dalí is known for in the
independent film world. Un Chien Andalou was Dalí\'s way of
creating his dreamlike qualities in the real world. Images
would change and scenes would switch, leading the viewer
in a completely different direction from the one they were
previously viewing. The second film he produced with Buñuel
was entitled L\'Age d\'Or, and it was performed at Studio 28 in
Paris in 1930. L\'Age d\'Or was \"banned for years after fascist
and anti-Semitic groups staged a stink bomb and ink-
throwing riot in the Paris theater where it was shown.\"[68]
Although negative aspects of society were being thrown into
the life of Dalí and obviously affecting the success of his
artwork, it did not hold him back from expressing his own
ideas and beliefs in his art. Both of these films, Un Chien
Andalou and L\'Age d\'Or, have had a tremendous impact on
the independent surrealist film movement. \"If Un Chien
Andalou stands as the supreme record of Surrealism\'s
adventures into the realm of the unconscious, then L\'Âge
d\'Or is perhaps the most trenchant and implacable
expression of its revolutionary intent.\"[69]
Dalí also worked with other famous filmmakers, such as
Alfred Hitchcock. The most well-known of his film projects is
probably the dream sequence in Hitchcock\'s Spellbound,
which heavily delves into themes of psychoanalysis.
Hitchcock needed a dreamlike quality to his film, which dealt
with the idea that a repressed experience can directly
trigger a neurosis, and he knew that Dalí\'s work would help
create the atmosphere he wanted in his film. He also worked
on a documentary called Chaos and Creation, which has a lot
of artistic references thrown into it to help one see what
Dalí\'s vision of art really is. He also worked on the Disney
short film production Destino. Completed in 2003 by Baker
Bloodworth and Roy E. Disney, it contains dreamlike images
of strange figures flying and walking about. It is based on
Mexican songwriter Armando Dominguez\' song \"Destino\".
When Disney hired Dalí to help produce the film in 1946,
they were not prepared for the work that lay ahead. For
eight months, they continuously animated until their efforts
had to come to a stop when they realized they were in
financial trouble. They had no more money to finish the
production of the animated film; however, it was eventually
finished and shown in various film festivals. The film consists
of Dalí\'s artwork interacting with Disney\'s character
animation. Dalí completed only one other film in his lifetime,
Impressions of Upper Mongolia (1975), in which he narrated
a story about an expedition in search of giant hallucinogenic
mushrooms. The imagery was based on microscopic uric
acid stains on the brass band of a ballpoint pen on which
Dalí had been urinating for several weeks.[70]
Proposal Essay      Phillip O’Sullivan
Writing Around ‘The Lugubrious Game’ (1929) By Salvador Dali
 The Essay Proposal is to examine the Painting \'The Lugubrious Game\' By Salvador
Dali at the time of its exhibition in Paris. Responses to the Painting will be looked at,
particularly as in the writings and from the various standpoints, of Andre Breton,
Salvador Dali and Bataille. At least half to two thirds of the essay will cover these
   Secondarily the surrounding context of surrealism and Marxism (a little) and
Psychology, as in the work of Sigmund Freud will be examined in the light of
Salvador Dali\'s espoused \'paranoid critical-analytical method\'. Bataille’s diagram will
be examined as in this light.
   Thirdly the writer will briefly offer his own analysis of the picture, based on the
above and on examining later artworks and views arising out of Salvador Dalis career
and pictorial development in so much as it throws hindsight-insights back into our
combined understanding of the picture. With the belief, that the plain dispute
between Breton and Bataille, has left some oversights and gaps for interpretation,
free of that conflict. There is no necessary art historical need to accept either
Bataille’s or Breton’s views as final and all conclusive. The Essay however will
substantially leave the \'received\' interpretations from these sources intact and only
seeks to sketch an exploration of other possibilities.
The principle contention will be the observation of an overall \'back view of a woman
figure\' for its overall schema, where the most \'exploded\' umbrella-hatted ‘oval shape’
above right comprises the \'head\', which we see as if \'inside\'. This being consistent
with Dali’s later exploding quantum pictures and with the many \'back views\' of
women we see in Dali’s oeuvre. Some other secondary possible interpretations will
also be detailed in regard to these inner features, particularly in regard to Freudian
\'oral\' understandings; accepting, any lack, or pretence of expert knowledge. However
for the essay, rudimentary research into Freud’s concept of the oral phase will be
outlined. Plainly the painting includes erotic references and notes on fellatio,
cunnilingus, \'phallic\' and vaginal symbols, masturbation as well as castration fears
and images; in fact, possibly the whole sexual peccadillo machinery.
The introductions and conclusion of the essay will briefly insert the picture into an art
historical narrative covering both the artist’s career and that of other surrealists, and
within the longer history of weird and perplexing images pertaining to the art canon.
Writers Bataille Breton Dali Others secondary
Pictorial analysis.Bataille Dali myself
300 words
Reviewers- historical context concept psychology paranoia method.
 surrealism dada exhibition automatism imagination
Avida dollars he was to become incipient then?
Gathered up in the backwash of Hindsight... Other works like it more clearly in later oeuvre ie
exploded quantum mechanics view and rear end view/face turning away so typical of his work.
Image coded quadrants Batailles schema. Discussed. Gridded Overlooked areas
Egg room Atlas anatomy cerebrum Adolf hitler dildo anal
Methods of seeing hologram mentally generated hologram Duchamp large glass.
Distorting images morph Holbein. Anamorphic images slanted Holbein Ascobobli ? Brueghal?
Heronimous Bosch.Leonardo Ernst De Chirico Carra etc. Weird fantasy history. Aubrey
3d bifocal image/ double images so painted areas do double or triple visionary duty.
Secret images hidden imagery trick on public... how he fooled the public flirting with fraud.
Scatological/erotic imagery Phillip Trusttrum sideways photographs.
Squinted seeing. Overlapped optically Reversed inverted perverted images rotated
Pictorial criminal treachery. madness
Title Dismal Sport Lugubrious Game Sport with the viewer/critic other artists/ manufactured in full
psychological knowledge in the studio an artwork of tricks. Inserted between two critics.
300 words 263/563 658/ 400 words. 1311words
General Sources
Moorehouse, Paul. Dali 2001 PRC Publishing London
Bradbury, Kirsten. Essential Dali DemseyParr 1999 Bath.
Klingsohr-Leroy, Cathrin. Surrealism Taschen 2005
Romero, Luis. DALI Chartweil Books Seacaucus 1975
Ades, Dawn. Dali Thames & Hudson 1982 London
Naret, Giles. Dali Taschen 2004 Los Angeles.
Finkelstein Haim Salvador Dali\'s Art and Writings 1927-1942: The Metaphoses of Narcissus
Cambridge University Press 1996
Plus texts in Reader.
Salvador Dalí
This is a Catalan name. The first family name is Dalí and the
second is Domènech.
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí photographed by Carl Van Vechten on
November 29, 1939
Birth name Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech
Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
Died January 23, 1989(1989-01-23) (aged 84)
Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
Nationality Spanish
Field Painting, Drawing, Photography, Sculpture, Writing,
Training San Fernando School of Fine Arts, Madrid
Movement Cubism, Dada, Surrealism
Works The Persistence of Memory (1931)
Face of Mae West Which May Be Used as an Apartment,
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil
War) (1936)
Swans Reflecting Elephants (1937)
Ballerina in a Death\'s Head (1939)
Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate
a Second Before Awakening (1944)
The Temptation of St. Anthony (1946)
Galatea of the Spheres (1952)
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) (1954)
Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Marquis de
Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), commonly known
as Salvador Dalí (Catalan pronunciation: [səɫβəˈðo ðəˈɫi]),
was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres.
Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and
bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are
often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.[1]
[2] His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was
completed in 1931. Dalí\'s expansive artistic repertoire
includes film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration
with a range of artists in a variety of media.
Dalí attributed his \"love of everything that is gilded and
excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental
clothes\"[3] to a self-styled \"Arab lineage,\" claiming that his
ancestors were descended from the Moors.
Dalí was highly imaginative, and also had an affinity for
partaking in unusual and grandiose behavior. His eccentric
manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes
drew more attention than his artwork to the dismay of those
who held his work in high esteem and to the irritation of his
•1 Biography
◦1.1 Early life
◦1.2 Madrid and Paris
◦1.3 1929 through World War II
◦1.4 Later years in Catalonia
•2 Symbolism
•3 Endeavors outside painting
•4 Politics and personality
•5 Legacy
•6 Listing of selected works
◦6.1 Novels
•7 Gallery
•8 See also
•9 Notes
•10 References
•11 External links
[edit] Biography
[edit] Early life
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech was born
on May 11, 1904 at 8:45 am GMT[5] in the town of Figueres,
in the Empordà region, close to the French border in
Catalonia, Spain.[6] Dalí\'s older brother, also named
Salvador (born October 12, 1901), had died of gastroenteritis
nine months earlier, on August 1, 1903. His father, Salvador
Dalí i Cusí, was a middle-class lawyer and notary[7] whose
strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa
Domenech Ferrés, who encouraged her son\'s artistic
endeavors.[8] When he was five, Dalí was taken to his
brother\'s grave and told by his parents that he was his
brother\'s reincarnation,[9] a concept which he came to
believe.[10] Of his brother, Dalí said, \"...[we] resembled each
other like two drops of water, but we had different
reflections.\"[11] He \"was probably a first version of myself
but conceived too much in the absolute.\"[11]
Dalí also had a sister, Ana María, who was three years
younger.[7] In 1949, she published a book about her brother,
Dalí As Seen By His Sister.[12] His childhood friends included
future FC Barcelona footballers Sagibarba and Josep
Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués,
the trio played football together.
Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, Dalí also discovered
modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués
with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made
regular trips to Paris.[7] The next year, Dalí\'s father
organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their
family home. He had his first public exhibition at the
Municipal Theater in Figueres in 1919.
In February 1921, Dalí\'s mother died of breast cancer. Dalí
was sixteen years old; he later said his mother\'s death \"was
the greatest blow I had experienced in my life. I worshipped
her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on
whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes
of my soul.\"[13] After her death, Dalí\'s father married his
deceased wife\'s sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage,
because he had a great love and respect for his aunt.[7]
[edit] Madrid and Paris
Wild-eyed antics of Dalí (left) and fellow surrealist artist Man
Ray in Paris on June 16, 1934, photographed by Carl Van
Vechten.In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de
Estudiantes (Students\' Residence) in Madrid[7] and studied
at the Academia de San Fernando (School of Fine Arts). A
lean 1.72 m (5 ft. 7¾ in.) tall,[14] Dalí already drew attention
as an eccentric and dandy man. He wore long hair and
sideburns, coat, stockings, and knee breeches in the style of
English aesthetes of the late 19th century.
At the Residencia, he became close friends with (among
others) Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, and Federico García Lorca.
The friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual
passion,[15] but Dalí rejected the poet\'s sexual advances.
However, it was his paintings, in which he experimented with
Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow
students. At the time of these early works, Dalí probably did
not completely understand the Cubist movement. His only
information on Cubist art came from magazine articles and a
catalog given to him by Pichot, since there were no Cubist
artists in Madrid at the time. In 1924, the still-unknown
Salvador Dalí illustrated a book for the first time. It was a
publication of the Catalan poem \"Les bruixes de Llers\" (\"The
Witches of Llers\") by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles
Fages de Climent. Dalí also experimented with Dada, which
influenced his work throughout his life.
Dalí was expelled from the Academia in 1926, shortly before
his final exams, when he stated that no one on the faculty
was competent enough to examine him.[17] His mastery of
painting skills was evidenced by his realistic Basket of Bread,
painted in 1926.[18] That same year, he made his first visit
to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí
revered. Picasso had already heard favorable reports about
Dalí from Joan Miró. As he developed his own style over the
next few years, Dalí made a number of works heavily
influenced by Picasso and Miró.
Some trends in Dalí\'s work that would continue throughout
his life were already evident in the 1920s. Dalí devoured
influences from many styles of art, ranging from the most
academically classic to the most cutting-edge avant garde.
[19] His classical influences included Raphael, Bronzino,
Francisco de Zurbaran, Vermeer, and Velázquez.[20] He
used both classical and modernist techniques, sometimes in
separate works, and sometimes combined. Exhibitions of his
works in Barcelona attracted much attention along with
mixtures of praise and puzzled debate from critics.
Dalí grew a flamboyant moustache, influenced by
seventeenth-century Spanish master painter Diego
Velázquez. The moustache became an iconic trademark of
his appearance for the rest of his life.
[edit] 1929 through World War II
In 1929, Dalí collaborated with surrealist film director Luis
Buñuel on the short film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian
Dog). His main contribution was to help Buñuel write the
script for the film. Dalí later claimed to have also played a
significant role in the filming of the project, but this is not
substantiated by contemporary accounts.[21] Also, in August
1929, Dalí met his muse, inspiration, and future wife Gala,
[22] born Elena Ivanovna Diakonova. She was a Russian
immigrant ten years his senior, who at that time was married
to surrealist poet Paul Éluard. In the same year, Dalí had
important professional exhibitions and officially joined the
Surrealist group in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris. His
work had already been heavily influenced by surrealism for
two years. The Surrealists hailed what Dalí called the
paranoiac-critical method of accessing the subconscious for
greater artistic creativity.[7][8]
Meanwhile, Dalí\'s relationship with his father was close to
rupture. Don Salvador Dalí y Cusi strongly disapproved of his
son\'s romance with Gala, and saw his connection to the
Surrealists as a bad influence on his morals. The last straw
was when Don Salvador read in a Barcelona newspaper that
his son had recently exhibited in Paris a drawing of the
\"Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ\", with a provocative inscription:
\"Sometimes, I spit for fun on my mother\'s portrait.\"[23]
Outraged, Don Salvador demanded that his son recant
publicly. Dalí refused, perhaps out of fear of expulsion from
the Surrealist group, and was violently thrown out of his
paternal home on December 28, 1929. His father told him
that he would disinherit him, and that he should never set
foot in Cadaquès again. The following summer, Dalí and Gala
rented a small fisherman\'s cabin in a nearby bay at Port
Lligat. He bought the place, and over the years enlarged it,
gradually building his much beloved villa by the sea.
The Persistence of MemoryIn 1931, Dalí painted one of his
most famous works, The Persistence of Memory,[24] which
introduced a surrealistic image of soft, melting pocket
watches. The general interpretation of the work is that the
soft watches are a rejection of the assumption that time is
rigid or deterministic. This idea is supported by other images
in the work, such as the wide expanding landscape, and the
other limp watches, shown being devoured by ants.[25]
Dalí and Gala, having lived together since 1929, were
married in 1934 in a civil ceremony. They later remarried in
a Catholic ceremony in 1958.
Dalí was introduced to America by art dealer Julian Levy in
1934. The exhibition in New York of Dalí\'s works, including
Persistence of Memory, created an immediate sensation.
Social Register listees feted him at a specially organized
\"Dalí Ball.\" He showed up wearing a glass case on his chest,
which contained a brassiere.[26] In that year, Dalí and Gala
also attended a masquerade party in New York, hosted for
them by heiress Caresse Crosby. For their costumes, they
dressed as the Lindbergh baby and his kidnapper. The
resulting uproar in the press was so great that Dalí
apologized. When he returned to Paris, the Surrealists
confronted him about his apology for a surrealist act.[27]
While the majority of the Surrealist artists had become
increasingly associated with leftist politics, Dalí maintained
an ambiguous position on the subject of the proper
relationship between politics and art. Leading surrealist
André Breton accused Dalí of defending the \"new\" and
\"irrational\" in \"the Hitler phenomenon,\" but Dalí quickly
rejected this claim, saying, \"I am Hitlerian neither in fact nor
intention.\"[28] Dalí insisted that surrealism could exist in an
apolitical context and refused to explicitly denounce fascism.
[citation needed] Among other factors, this had landed him
in trouble with his colleagues. Later in 1934, Dalí was
subjected to a \"trial\", in which he was formally expelled from
the Surrealist group.[22] To this, Dalí retorted, \"I myself am
In 1936, Dalí took part in the London International Surrealist
Exhibition. His lecture, entitled Fantomes paranoiaques
authentiques, was delivered while wearing a deep-sea diving
suit and helmet.[29] He had arrived carrying a billiard cue
and leading a pair of Russian wolfhounds, and had to have
the helmet unscrewed as he gasped for breath. He
commented that \"I just wanted to show that I was \'plunging
deeply\' into the human mind.\"[30]
Also in 1936, at the premiere screening of Joseph Cornell\'s
film Rose Hobart at Julian Levy\'s gallery in New York City,
Dalí became famous for another incident. Levy\'s program of
short surrealist films was timed to take place at the same
time as the first surrealism exhibition at the Museum of
Modern Art, featuring Dalí\'s work. Dalí was in the audience at
the screening, but halfway through the film, he knocked over
the projector in a rage. “My idea for a film is exactly that,
and I was going to propose it to someone who would pay to
have it made,” he said. \"I never wrote it down or told
anyone, but it is as if he had stolen it.\" Other versions of
Dalí\'s accusation tend to the more poetic: \"He stole it from
my subconscious!\" or even \"He stole my dreams!\"[31]
At this stage, Dalí\'s main patron in London was the very
wealthy Edward James. He had helped Dalí emerge into the
art world by purchasing many works and by supporting him
financially for two years. They also collaborated on two of
the most enduring icons of the Surrealist movement: the
Lobster Telephone and the Mae West Lips Sofa.[citation
In 1938, Dalí met Sigmund Freud thanks to Stefan Zweig.
Later, in September 1938, Salvador Dalí was invited by
Gabrielle Coco Chanel to her house La Pausa in Roquebrune
on the French Riviera. There he painted numerous paintings
he later exhibited at Julien Levy Gallery in New York.[32][33]
La Pausa has been partially replicated at the Dallas Museum
of Art to welcome the Reves collection and part of Chanel\'s
original furniture for the house.[34]
In 1939, Breton coined the derogatory nickname \"Avida
Dollars\", an anagram for Salvador Dalí, and a phonetic
rendering of the French avide à dollars, which may be
translated as \"eager for dollars\".[35] This was a derisive
reference to the increasing commercialization of Dalí\'s work,
and the perception that Dalí sought self-aggrandizement
through fame and fortune. Some surrealists henceforth
spoke of Dalí in the past tense, as if he were dead.[citation
needed] The Surrealist movement and various members
thereof (such as Ted Joans) would continue to issue
extremely harsh polemics against Dalí until the time of his
death and beyond.
In 1940, as World War II was in full swing at Europe, Dalí and
Gala moved to the United States, where they lived for eight
years. After the move, Dalí returned to the practice of
Catholicism. \"During this period, Dalí never stopped writing,\"
wrote Robert and Nicolas Descharnes.[36]
In 1941, Dalí drafted a film scenario for Jean Gabin called
Moontide. In 1942, he published his autobiography, The
Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. He wrote catalogs for his
exhibitions, such as that at the Knoedler Gallery in New York
in 1943. Therein he expounded, \"Surrealism will at least
have served to give experimental proof that total sterility
and attempts at automatizations have gone too far and have
led to a totalitarian system. ... Today\'s laziness and the total
lack of technique have reached their paroxysm in the
psychological signification of the current use of the college.\"
He also wrote a novel, published in 1944, about a fashion
salon for automobiles. This resulted in a drawing by Edwin
Cox in The Miami Herald, depicting Dalí dressing an
automobile in an evening gown.[36] Also in The Secret Life,
Dalí suggested that he had split with Buñuel because the
latter was a Communist and an atheist. Buñuel was fired (or
resigned) from MOMA, supposedly after Cardinal Spellman of
New York went to see Iris Barry, head of the film department
at MOMA. Buñuel then went back to Hollywood where he
worked in the dubbing department of Warner Bros. from
1942 to 1946. In his 1982 autobiography Mon Dernier soupir
(English translation My Last Sigh published 1983), Buñuel
wrote that, over the years, he rejected Dalí\'s attempts at
An Italian friar, Gabriele Maria Berardi, claimed to have
performed an exorcism on Dalí while he was in France in
1947.[38] In 2005, a sculpture of Christ on the Cross was
discovered in the friar\'s estate. It had been claimed that Dalí
gave this work to his exorcist out of gratitude,[38] and two
Spanish art experts confirmed that there were adequate
stylistic reasons to believe the sculpture was made by Dalí.
[edit] Later years in Catalonia
Starting in 1949, Dalí spent his remaining years back in his
beloved Catalonia. The fact that he chose to live in Spain
while it was ruled by Franco drew criticism from progressives
and from many other artists.[39] As such, it is probable that
the common dismissal of Dalí\'s later works by some
Surrealists and art critics was related partially to politics
rather than to the artistic merit of the works themselves. In
1959, André Breton organized an exhibit called Homage to
Surrealism, celebrating the fortieth anniversary of
Surrealism, which contained works by Dalí, Joan Miró,
Enrique Tábara, and Eugenio Granell. Breton vehemently
fought against the inclusion of Dalí\'s Sistine Madonna in the
International Surrealism Exhibition in New York the following
Late in his career, Dalí did not confine himself to painting,
but experimented with many unusual or novel media and
processes: he made bulletist works[41] and was among the
first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner.[42]
Several of his works incorporate optical illusions. In his later
years, young artists such as Andy Warhol proclaimed Dalí an
important influence on pop art.[43] Dalí also had a keen
interest in natural science and mathematics. This is
manifested in several of his paintings, notably in the 1950s,
in which he painted his subjects as composed of rhinoceros
horns. According to Dalí, the rhinoceros horn signifies divine
geometry because it grows in a logarithmic spiral. He also
linked the rhinoceros to themes of chastity and to the Virgin
Mary.[44] Dalí was also fascinated by DNA and the
hypercube (a 4-dimensional cube); an unfolding of a
hypercube is featured in the painting Crucifixion (Corpus
Dalí\'s post–World War II period bore the hallmarks of
technical virtuosity and an interest in optical illusions,
science, and religion. He became an increasingly devout
Catholic, while at the same time he had been inspired by the
shock of Hiroshima and the dawning of the \"atomic age\".
Therefore Dalí labeled this period \"Nuclear Mysticism.\" In
paintings such as \"The Madonna of Port-Lligat\" (first version)
(1949) and \"Corpus Hypercubus\" (1954), Dalí sought to
synthesize Christian iconography with images of material
disintegration inspired by nuclear physics.[45] \"Nuclear
Mysticism\" included such notable pieces as La Gare de
Perpignan (1965) and The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968–
70). In 1960, Dalí began work on the Dalí Theatre and
Museum in his home town of Figueres; it was his largest
single project and the main focus of his energy through
1974. He continued to make additions through the mid-
1980s.[citation needed]
In 1968, Dalí filmed a humorous television advertisement for
Lanvin chocolates.[46] In this, he proclaims in French \"Je suis
fou de chocolat Lanvin!\" (I\'m crazy about Lanvin chocolate)
while biting a morsel causing him to become crosseyed and
his moustache to swivel upwards. In 1969, he designed the
Chupa Chups logo in addition to facilitating the design of the
advertising campaign for the 1969 Eurovision Song Contest
and creating a large on-stage metal sculpture that stood at
the Teatro Real in Madrid.
Dalí in 1972.In the television programme Dirty Dalí: A Private
View broadcast on Channel 4 on June 3, 2007, art critic Brian
Sewell described his acquaintance with Dalí in the late
1960s, which included lying down in the fetal position
without trousers in the armpit of a figure of Christ and
masturbating for Dalí, who pretended to take photos while
fumbling in his own trousers.[47][48]
In 1980, Dalí\'s health took a catastrophic turn. His near-
senile wife, Gala, allegedly had been dosing him with a
dangerous cocktail of unprescribed medicine that damaged
his nervous system, thus causing an untimely end to his
artistic capacity. At 76 years old, Dalí was a wreck, and his
right hand trembled terribly, with Parkinson-like symptoms.
In 1982, King Juan Carlos bestowed on Dalí the title of
Marqués de Dalí de Púbol[50][51] (English: Marquis of Dalí
de Púbol) in the nobility of Spain, hereby referring to Púbol,
the place where he lived. The title was in first instance
hereditary, but on request of Dalí changed for life only in
1983.[50] To show his gratitude for this, Dalí later gave the
king a drawing (Head of Europa, which would turn out to be
Dalí\'s final drawing) after the king visited him on his
Sant Pere in Figueres, scene of Dalí\'s Baptism, First
Communion, and funeral
Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres, where he is also
Dalí\'s crypt at the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres,
stating his titlesGala died on June 10, 1982. After Gala\'s
death, Dalí lost much of his will to live. He deliberately
dehydrated himself, possibly as a suicide attempt, or
perhaps in an attempt to put himself into a state of
suspended animation as he had read that some
microorganisms could do. He moved from Figueres to the
castle in Púbol, which he had bought for Gala and was the
site of her death. In 1984, a fire broke out in his
bedroom[52] under unclear circumstances. It was possibly a
suicide attempt by Dalí, or possibly simple negligence by his
staff.[17] In any case, Dalí was rescued and returned to
Figueres, where a group of his friends, patrons, and fellow
artists saw to it that he was comfortable living in his Theater-
Museum in his final years.
There have been allegations that Dalí was forced by his
guardians to sign blank canvases that would later, even after
his death, be used in forgeries and sold as originals.[53] As a
result, art dealers tend to be wary of late works attributed to
Dalí.[citation needed]
In November 1988, Dalí entered the hospital with heart
failure, and on December 5, 1988 was visited by King Juan
Carlos, who confessed that he had always been a serious
devotee of Dalí.[54]
On January 23, 1989, while his favorite record of Tristan and
Isolde played, he died of heart failure at Figueres at the age
of 84, and, coming full circle, is buried in the crypt of his
Teatro Museo in Figueres. The location is across the street
from the church of Sant Pere, where he had his baptism, first
communion, and funeral, and is three blocks from the house
where he was born.[55]
The Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation currently serves as his
official estate.[56] The U.S. copyright representative for the
Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation is the Artists Rights Society.
[57] In 2002, the Society made the news when they asked
Google to remove a customized version of its logo put up to
commemorate Dalí, alleging that portions of specific
artworks under their protection had been used without
permission. Google complied with the request, but denied
that there was any copyright violation.[citation needed]
[edit] Symbolism
Dalí employed extensive symbolism in his work. For
instance, the hallmark \"soft watches\" that first appear in The
Persistence of Memory suggest Einstein\'s theory that time is
relative and not fixed.[25] The idea for clocks functioning
symbolically in this way came to Dalí when he was staring at
a runny piece of Camembert cheese on a hot day in August.
The elephant is also a recurring image in Dalí\'s works. It first
appeared in his 1944 work Dream Caused by the Flight of a
Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening. The
elephants, inspired by Gian Lorenzo Bernini\'s sculpture base
in Rome of an elephant carrying an ancient obelisk,[59] are
portrayed \"with long, multijointed, almost invisible legs of
desire\"[60] along with obelisks on their backs. Coupled with
the image of their brittle legs, these encumbrances, noted
for their phallic overtones, create a sense of phantom reality.
\"The elephant is a distortion in space,\" one analysis explains,
\"its spindly legs contrasting the idea of weightlessness with
structure.\"[60] \"I am painting pictures which make me die
for joy, I am creating with an absolute naturalness, without
the slightest aesthetic concern, I am making things that
inspire me with a profound emotion and I am trying to paint
them honestly.\" —Salvador Dalí, in Dawn Ades, Dalí and
The egg is another common Dalíesque image. He connects
the egg to the prenatal and intrauterine, thus using it to
symbolize hope and love;[61] it appears in The Great
Masturbator and The Metamorphosis of Narcissus. The
Metamorphosis of Narcissus also symbolized death and
petrification. Various animals appear throughout his work as
well: ants point to death, decay, and immense sexual desire;
the snail is connected to the human head (he saw a snail on
a bicycle outside Freud\'s house when he first met Sigmund
Freud); and locusts are a symbol of waste and fear.[61]
[edit] Endeavors outside painting
The Dali Atomicus, photo by Philippe Halsman (1948), shown
before its supporting wires were removed.Dalí was a
versatile artist. Some of his more popular works are
sculptures and other objects, and he is also noted for his
contributions to theatre, fashion, and photography, among
other areas.
Two of the most popular objects of the surrealist movement
were Lobster Telephone and Mae West Lips Sofa, completed
by Dalí in 1936 and 1937, respectively. Surrealist artist and
patron Edward James commissioned both of these pieces
from Dalí; James inherited a large English estate in West
Dean, West Sussex when he was five and was one of the
foremost supporters of the surrealists in the 1930s.[62]
\"Lobsters and telephones had strong sexual connotations for
[Dalí],\" according to the display caption for the Lobster
Telephone at the Tate Gallery, \"and he drew a close analogy
between food and sex.\"[63] The telephone was functional,
and James purchased four of them from Dalí to replace the
phones in his retreat home. One now appears at the Tate
Gallery; the second can be found at the German Telephone
Museum in Frankfurt; the third belongs to the Edward James
Foundation; and the fourth is at the National Gallery of
The wood and satin Mae West Lips Sofa was shaped after the
lips of actress Mae West, whom Dalí apparently found
fascinating.[22] West was previously the subject of Dalí\'s
1935 painting The Face of Mae West. Mae West Lips Sofa
currently resides at the Brighton and Hove Museum in
Between 1941 and 1970, Dalí created an ensemble of 39
jewels. The jewels are intricate, and some contain moving
parts. The most famous jewel, \"The Royal Heart\", is made of
gold and is encrusted with 46 rubies, 42 diamonds, and four
emeralds and is created in such a way that the center
\"beats\" much like a real heart. Dalí himself commented that
\"Without an audience, without the presence of spectators,
these jewels would not fulfill the function for which they
came into being. The viewer, then, is the ultimate artist.\"
(Dalí, 1959.) The \"Dalí – Joies\" (\"The Jewels of Dalí\")
collection can be seen at the Dalí Theater Museum in
Figueres, Catalonia, Spain, where it is on permanent
In theatre, Dalí constructed the scenery for Federico García
Lorca\'s 1927 romantic play Mariana Pineda.[64] For
Bacchanale (1939), a ballet based on and set to the music of
Richard Wagner\'s 1845 opera Tannhäuser, Dalí provided
both the set design and the libretto.[65] Bacchanale was
followed by set designs for Labyrinth in 1941 and The Three-
Cornered Hat in 1949.[66]
Dalí became intensely interested in film when he was young,
going to the theatre most Sundays. He was part of the era
where silent films were being viewed and drawing on the
medium of film became popular. He believed there were two
dimensions to the theories of film and cinema: \"things
themselves\", the facts that are presented in the world of the
camera; and \"photographic imagination\", the way the
camera shows the picture and how creative or imaginative it
looks.[67] Dalí was active in front of and behind the scenes
in the film world. He created pieces of artwork such as
Destino, on which he collaborated with Walt Disney. He is
also credited as co-creator of Luis Buñuel\'s surrealist film Un
Chien Andalou, a 17-minute French art film co-written with
Luis Buñuel that is widely remembered for its graphic
opening scene simulating the slashing of a human eyeball
with a razor. This film is what Dalí is known for in the
independent film world. Un Chien Andalou was Dalí\'s way of
creating his dreamlike qualities in the real world. Images
would change and scenes would switch, leading the viewer
in a completely different direction from the one they were
previously viewing. The second film he produced with Buñuel
was entitled L\'Age d\'Or, and it was performed at Studio 28 in
Paris in 1930. L\'Age d\'Or was \"banned for years after fascist
and anti-Semitic groups staged a stink bomb and ink-
throwing riot in the Paris theater where it was shown.\"[68]
Although negative aspects of society were being thrown into
the life of Dalí and obviously affecting the success of his
artwork, it did not hold him back from expressing his own
ideas and beliefs in his art. Both of these films, Un Chien
Andalou and L\'Age d\'Or, have had a tremendous impact on
the independent surrealist film movement. \"If Un Chien
Andalou stands as the supreme record of Surrealism\'s
adventures into the realm of the unconscious, then L\'Âge
d\'Or is perhaps the most trenchant and implacable
expression of its revolutionary intent.\"[69]
Dalí also worked with other famous filmmakers, such as
Alfred Hitchcock. The most well-known of his film projects is
probably the dream sequence in Hitchcock\'s Spellbound,
which heavily delves into themes of psychoanalysis.
Hitchcock needed a dreamlike quality to his film, which dealt
with the idea that a repressed experience can directly
trigger a neurosis, and he knew that Dalí\'s work would help
create the atmosphere he wanted in his film. He also worked
on a documentary called Chaos and Creation, which has a lot
of artistic references thrown into it to help one see what
Dalí\'s vision of art really is. He also worked on the Disney
short film production Destino. Completed in 2003 by Baker
Bloodworth and Roy E. Disney, it contains dreamlike images
of strange figures flying and walking about. It is based on
Mexican songwriter Armando Dominguez\' song \"Destino\".
When Disney hired Dalí to help produce the film in 1946,
they were not prepared for the work that lay ahead. For
eight months, they continuously animated until their efforts
had to come to a stop when they realized they were in
financial trouble. They had no more money to finish the
production of the animated film; however, it was eventually
finished and shown in various film festivals. The film consists
of Dalí\'s artwork interacting with Disney\'s character
animation. Dalí completed only one other film in his lifetime,
Impressions of Upper Mongolia (1975), in which he narrated
a story about an expedition in search of giant hallucinogenic
mushrooms. The imagery was based on microscopic uric
acid stains on the brass band of a ballpoint pen on which
Dalí had been urinating for several weeks.[70]
Dalí built a repertoire in the fashion and photography
industries as well. In fashion, his cooperation with Italian
fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli is well-known, where Dalí
was hired by Schiaparelli to produce a white dress with a
lobster print. Other designs Dalí made for her include a shoe-
shaped hat and a pink belt with lips for a buckle. He was also
involved in creating textile designs and perfume bottles. In
1950, Dalí created a special \"costume for the year 2045\"
with Christian Dior.[65] Photographers with whom he
collaborated include Man Ray, Brassaï, Cecil Beaton, and
Philippe Halsman.
With Man Ray and Brassaï, Dalí photographed nature; with
the others, he explored a range of obscure topics, including
(with Halsman) the Dalí Atomica series (1948)—inspired by
his painting Leda Atomica — which in one photograph
depicts \"a painter\'s easel, three cats, a bucket of water, and
Dalí himself floating in the air.\"[65]
References to Dalí in the context of science are made in
terms of his fascination with the paradigm shift that
accompanied the birth of quantum mechanics in the
twentieth century. Inspired by Werner Heisenberg\'s
Uncertainty Principle, in 1958 he wrote in his \"Anti-Matter
Manifesto\": \"In the Surrealist period, I wanted to create the
iconography of the interior world and the world of the
marvelous, of my father Freud. Today, the exterior world and
that of physics has transcended the one of psychology. My
father today is Dr. Heisenberg.\"[71]
In this respect, The Disintegration of the Persistence of
Memory, which appeared in 1954, in hearkening back to The
Persistence of Memory, and in portraying that painting in
fragmentation and disintegration summarizes Dalí\'s
acknowledgment of the new science.[71]
Architectural achievements include his Port Lligat house near
Cadaqués, as well as the Dream of Venus surrealist pavilion
at the 1939 World\'s Fair, which contained within it a number
of unusual sculptures and statues. His literary works include
The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942), Diary of a Genius
(1952–63), and Oui: The Paranoid-Critical Revolution (1927–
33). The artist worked extensively in the graphic arts,
producing many etchings and lithographs. While his early
work in printmaking is equal in quality to his important
paintings as he grew older, he would sell the rights to
images but not be involved in the print production itself. In
addition, a large number of unauthorized fakes were
produced in the eighties and nineties, thus further confusing
the Dalí print market. He took a stab at industrial design in
the 1970s with a 500-piece run of the upscale Suomi
tableware by Timo Sarpaneva that Dalí decorated for the
German Rosenthal porcelain maker\'s Studio Linie.[72]
One of Dalí\'s most unorthodox artistic creations may have
been an entire person. At a French nightclub in 1965, Dalí
met Amanda Lear, a fashion model then known as Peki
D\'Oslo.[73] Lear became his protégé and muse,[73] writing
about their affair in the authorized biography My Life With
Dalí (1986).[74] Transfixed by the mannish, larger-than-life
Lear, Dalí masterminded her successful transition from
modeling to the music world, advising her on self-
presentation and helping spin mysterious stories about her
origin as she took the disco-art scene by storm. According to
Lear, she and Dalí were united in a \"spiritual marriage\" on a
deserted mountaintop.[73] Referred to as Dalí\'s
\"Frankenstein,\"[75] some believe Lear\'s name is a pun on
the French \"L\'Amant Dalí,\" or Lover of Dalí. Lear took the
place of an earlier muse, Ultra Violet (Isabelle Collin
Dufresne), who had left Dalí\'s side to join The Factory of
Andy Warhol.[76]
An avid cheese maker, Dali would sometimes engross
himself in cheese-making for over 4 months at a time. His
favorite cheese was swiss.[citation needed]
[edit] Politics and personality
Dalí in the 1960s wearing the flamboyant mustache style he
popularized.Salvador Dalí\'s politics played a significant role
in his emergence as an artist. In his youth, he embraced
both anarchism and communism, though his writings
account anecdotes of making radical political statements
more to shock listeners than from any deep conviction. This
was in keeping with Dalí\'s allegiance to the Dada movement.
As he grew older his political allegiances changed, especially
as the Surrealist movement went through transformations
under the leadership of Trotskyist André Breton, who is said
to have called Dalí in for questioning on his politics. In his
1970 book Dalí by Dalí, Dalí was declaring himself an
anarchist and monarchist.
With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Dalí fled from
fighting and refused to align himself with any group.
Likewise, after World War II, George Orwell criticized Dalí for
\"scuttling off like a rat as soon as France is in danger\" after
Dalí prospered there for years: \"When the European War
approaches he has one preoccupation only: how to find a
place which has good cookery and from which he can make
a quick bolt if danger comes too near.\" In a notable 1944
review of Dalí\'s autobiography, Orwell wrote, \"One ought to
be able to hold in one\'s head simultaneously the two facts
that Dalí is a good draughtsman and a disgusting human
After his return to Catalonia after World War II, Dalí became
closer to the authoritarian Franco regime. Some of Dalí\'s
statements supported the Franco regime, congratulating
Franco for his actions aimed \"at clearing Spain of destructive
forces.\"[39] Dalí, having returned to the Catholic faith and
becoming increasingly religious as time went on, may have
been referring to the Republican atrocities during the
Spanish Civil War.[78][79] Dalí sent telegrams to Franco,
praising him for signing death warrants for prisoners.[39] He
even met Franco personally[80] and painted a portrait of
Franco\'s granddaughter.
He also once sent a telegram praising the Conducător,
Romanian Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, for his
adoption of a scepter as part of his regalia. The Romanian
daily newspaper Scînteia published it, without suspecting its
mocking aspect. One of Dalí\'s few possible bits of open
disobedience was his continued praise of Federico García
Lorca even in the years when Lorca\'s works were banned.
[not in citation given][16]
Dalí, a colorful and imposing presence in his ever-present
long cape, walking stick, haughty expression, and upturned
waxed mustache, was famous for having said that \"every
morning upon awakening, I experience a supreme pleasure:
that of being Salvador Dalí.\"[81] The entertainer Cher and
her husband Sonny Bono, when young, came to a party at
Dalí\'s expensive residence in New York\'s Plaza Hotel and
were startled when Cher sat down on an oddly shaped
sexual vibrator left in an easy chair. When signing
autographs for fans, Dalí would always keep their pens.
When interviewed by Mike Wallace on his 60 Minutes
television show, Dalí kept referring to himself in the third
person, and told the startled Mr. Wallace matter-of-factly
that \"Dalí is immortal and will not die.\" During another
television appearance, on The Tonight Show, Dalí carried
with him a leather rhinoceros and refused to sit upon
anything else.[citation needed]
[edit] Legacy
Salvador Dalí has been cited as major inspiration from many
modern artists, such as Damien Hirst, Noel Fielding, Jeff
Koons and most other modern surrealists. Salvador Dali\'s
manic expression and famous moustache have made him
something of a Cult icon for the bizarre & surreal.
[edit] Listing of selected works
Main article: List of works by Salvador Dalí
The Philadelphia Museum of Art used a surreal entrance
display including its steps, for the 2005 Salvador Dalí
exhibitionDalí produced over 1,500 paintings in his
career[82] in addition to producing illustrations for books,
lithographs, designs for theatre sets and costumes, a great
number of drawings, dozens of sculptures, and various other
projects, including an animated short film for Disney. He also
collaborated with director Jack Bond in 1965, creating a
movie titled Dalí in New York. Below is a chronological
sample of important and representative work, as well as
some notes on what Dalí did in particular years.[2]
In Carlos Lozano\'s biography, Sex, Surrealism, Dalí, and Me,
produced with the collaboration of Clifford Thurlow, Lozano
makes it clear that Dalí never stopped being a surrealist. As
Dalí said of himself: \"the only difference between me and the
surrealists is that I am a surrealist.\"[35]
•1910 Landscape Near Figueras
•1913 Vilabertin
•1916 Fiesta in Figueras (begun 1914)
•1917 View of Cadaqués with Shadow of Mount Pani
•1918 Crepuscular Old Man (begun 1917)
•1919 Port of Cadaqués (Night) (begun 1918) and Self-
portrait in the Studio
•1920 The Artist\'s Father at Llane Beach and View of
Portdogué (Port Aluger)
•1921 The Garden of Llaner (Cadaqués) (begun 1920) and
•1922 Cabaret Scene and Night Walking Dreams
•1923 Self Portrait with L\'Humanite and Cubist Self Portrait
with La Publicitat
•1924 Still Life (Syphon and Bottle of Rum) (for García Lorca)
and Portrait of Luis Buñuel
•1925 Large Harlequin and Small Bottle of Rum and a series
of fine portraits of his sister Anna Maria, most notably Figure
at a Window
•1926 The Basket of Bread and Girl from Figueres
•1927 Composition with Three Figures (Neo-Cubist
Academy) and Honey is Sweeter than Blood (his first
important surrealist work)
•1929 Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog) film in
collaboration with Luis Buñuel, The Lugubrious Game, The
Great Masturbator, The First Days of Spring, and The
Profanation of the Host
•1930 L\'Age d\'Or (The Golden Age) film in collaboration with
Luis Buñuel
•1931 The Persistence of Memory (his most famous work,
featuring the \"melting clocks\"), The Old Age of William Tell,
and William Tell and Gradiva
•1932 The Spectre of Sex Appeal, The Birth of Liquid
Desires, Anthropomorphic Bread, and Fried Eggs on the Plate
without the Plate. The Invisible Man (begun 1929) completed
(although not to Dalí\'s own satisfaction)
•1933 Retrospective Bust of a Woman (mixed media
sculpture collage) and Portrait of Gala With Two Lamb Chops
Balanced on Her Shoulder, Gala in the Window
•1934 The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As
a Table and A Sense of Speed
•1935 Archaeological Reminiscence of Millet\'s Angelus and
The Face of Mae West
•1936 Autumn Cannibalism, Lobster Telephone, Soft
Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War)
and two works titled Morphological Echo (the first of which
began in 1934)
•1937 Metamorphosis of Narcissus, Swans Reflecting
Elephants, The Burning Giraffe, Sleep, The Enigma of Hitler,
Mae West Lips Sofa and Cannibalism in Autumn
•1938 The Sublime Moment and Apparition of Face and Fruit
Dish on a Beach
•1939 Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster
of the Cinema in Her Time
•1940 Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire,
The Face of War
•1941 Honey is Sweeter than Blood
•1943 The Poetry of America and Geopoliticus Child
Watching the Birth of the New Man
•1944 Galarina and Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee
around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening
•1944–48 Hidden Faces, a novel
•1945, Basket of Bread—Rather Death than Shame and
Fountain of Milk Flowing Uselessly on Three Shoes; also this
year, Dalí collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock on a dream
sequence to the film Spellbound, to mutual dissatisfaction
•1946 The Temptation of St. Anthony
•1948 Les Elephants
•1949 Leda Atomica and The Madonna of Port Lligat. Dalí
returned to Catalonia this year
•1951 Christ of Saint John of the Cross and Exploding
Raphaelesque Head
•1951 Katharine Cornell, a portrait of the famed actress
•1952 Galatea of the Spheres
•1954 The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory
(begun in 1952), Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) and Young
Virgin Auto-Sodomized by the Horns of Her Own Chastity
•1955 The Sacrament of the Last Supper, Lonesome Echo,
record album cover for Jackie Gleason
•1956 Still Life Moving Fast, Rinoceronte vestido con
•1957 Santiago el Grande oil on canvas on permanent
display at Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton, NB,
•1958 The Meditative Rose
•1959 The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus
•1960 Composición Numérica (de fond préparatoire
•1960 Dalí began work on the Teatro-Museo Gala Salvador
Dalí and Portrait of Juan de Pareja, the Assistant to
•1963–1964 They Will All Come from Saba a work in water
color depicting the Magi at St. Petersbur\'s Dali Museum
•1965 Dalí donates a gouache, ink and pencil drawing of the
Crucifixion to the Rikers Island jail in New York City. The
drawing hung in the inmate dining room from 1965 to
•1965 Dalí in New York
•1967 Tuna Fishing
•1969 Chupa Chups logo
•1969 – Improvisation on a Sunday Afternoon, television
collaboration with the rock group Nirvana
•1970 The Hallucinogenic Toreador, acquired in 1969 by A.
Reynolds Morse & Eleanor R. Morse before it was completed
•1972 La Toile Daligram, Helena Devulina Diakanoff – dit.,
•1973 \"Le Diners De Gala\", an ornately illustrated cook book
•1976 Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea
•1977 Dalí\'s Hand Drawing Back the Golden Fleece in the
Form of a Cloud to Show Gala Completely Nude, Very Far
Away Behind the Sun (stereoscopical pair of paintings)
•1983 Dalí completes his final painting, The Swallow\'s Tail
•2003 Destino, an animated short film originally a
collaboration between Dalí and Walt Disney, is released.
Production on Destino began in 1945
The largest collections of Dalí\'s work are at the Dalí Theatre
and Museum in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain, followed by the
Salvador Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida, which
contains the collection of A. Reynolds Morse & Eleanor R.
Morse. It holds over 1,500 works from Dalí. Other particularly
significant collections include the Reina Sofia Museum in
Madrid and the Salvador Dalí Gallery in Pacific Palisades,
California. Espace Dalí in Montmartre, Paris, France, as well
as the Dalí Universe in London, England, contain a large
collection of his drawings and sculptures.
The unlikeliest venue for Dalí\'s work was the Rikers Island
jail in New York City; a sketch of the Crucifixion he donated
to the jail hung in the inmate dining room for 16 years before
it was moved to the prison lobby for safekeeping. Ironically,
the drawing was stolen from that location in March 2003 and
has not been recovered.[83]
[edit] Novels
Under the encouragement of poet Federico García Lorca,
Dalí attempted an approach to a literary career through the
means of the \"pure novel\". In his only literary production,
Hidden Faces (1944), Dalí describes, in vividly visual terms,
the intrigues and love affairs of a group of dazzling, eccentric
aristocrats who, with their luxurious and extravagant
lifestyle, symbolize the decadence of the 1930s.
[edit] Gallery
•Gala in the Window (1933)
•Rinoceronte vestido con puntillas (1956)
Puerto José Banús.
•Homage to Newton (1985)
Signed and numbered cast no. 5/8. Bronze with dark patina.
Size: 388 x 210 x 133cm.
UOB Plaza, Singapore
Dalí\'s homage to Newton, with an open torso and suspended
heart to indicate \"open-heartedness,\" and an open head
indicating \"open-mindedness\"—
the two very qualities important for science discovery and
successful human endeavours.
•Children at Dali\'s exhibition in Sakıp Sabancı Museum,
[edit] See also
•Little Ashes
[edit] Notes
1.^ \"Phelan, Joseph, \',The Salvador Dalí Show\".
Artcyclopedia.com. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/feature-
2005-03.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
2.^ a b Dalí, Salvador. (2000) Dalí: 16 Art Stickers, Courier
Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41074-9.
3.^ Ian Gibson (1997). The Shameful Life of Salvador Dalí.
W. W. Norton & Company.
Gibson found out that \"Dalí\" (and its many variants) is an
extremely common surname in Arab countries like Morocco,
Tunisia, Algeria or Egypt. On the other hand, also according
to Gibson, Dalí\'s mother family, the Domènech of Barcelona,
had Jewish roots.
4.^ Saladyga, Stephen Francis. \"The Mindset of Salvador
Dalí\". lamplighter (Niagara University). Vol. 1 No. 3, Summer
2006. Retrieved July 22, 2006.
5.^ Birth certificate and \"Dalí Biography\". Dalí Museum. Dalí
Retrieved 2008-08-24.
6.^ Dalí, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, 1948, London:
Vision Press, p.33
7.^ a b c d e f Llongueras, Lluís. (2004) Dalí, Ediciones B –
Mexico. ISBN 84-666-1343-9.
8.^ a b Rojas, Carlos. Salvador Dalí, Or the Art of Spitting on
Your Mother\'s Portrait, Penn State Press (1993). ISBN 0-271-
9.^ Salvador Dalí. SINA.com. Retrieved on July 31, 2006.
10.^ Salvador Dalí biography on astrodatabank.com.
Retrieved September 30, 2006.
11.^ a b Dalí, Secret Life, p.2
12.^ \"Dalí Biography 1904–1989 – Part Two\". artelino.com.
http://www.artelino.com/articles/dali.asp. Retrieved 2006-09-
13.^ Dalí, Secret Life, pp.152–153
14.^ As listed in his prison record of 1924, aged 20.
However, his hairdresser and biographer, Luis Llongueras,
states Dalí was 1.74 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in) tall.
15.^ For more in-depth information about the Lorca-Dalí
connection see Lorca-Dalí: el amor que no pudo ser and The
Shameful Life of Salvador Dalí, both by Ian Gibson.
16.^ a b Bosquet, Alain, Conversations with Dalí, 1969. p.
19–20. (PDF format) (of Garcia Lorca) \'S.D.:He was
homosexual, as everyone knows, and madly in love with me.
He tried to screw me twice .... I was extremely annoyed,
because I wasn’t homosexual, and I wasn’t interested in
giving in. Besides, it hurts. So nothing came of it. But I felt
awfully flattered vis-à-vis the prestige. Deep down I felt that
he was a great poet and that I owe him a tiny bit of the
Divine Dalí\'s asshole. He eventually bagged a young girl, and
she replaced me in the sacrifice. Failing to get me to put my
ass at his disposal, he swore that the girl’s sacrifice was
matched by his own: it was the first time he had ever slept
with a woman.\'
17.^ a b c Salvador Dalí: Olga\'s Gallery. Retrieved on July
22, 2006.
18.^ \"Paintings Gallery #5\". Dali-gallery.com.
Retrieved 2010-08-22.
19.^ Hodge, Nicola, and Libby Anson. The A–Z of Art: The
World\'s Greatest and Most Popular Artists and Their Works.
California: Thunder Bay Press, 1996. Online citation.
20.^ \"Phelan, Joseph\". Artcyclopedia.com.
Retrieved 2010-08-22.
21.^ Koller, Michael. Un Chien Andalou. senses of cinema
January 2001. Retrieved on July 26, 2006.
22.^ a b c Shelley, Landry. \"Dalí Wows Crowd in
Philadelphia\". Unbound (The College of New Jersey) Spring
2005. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
23.^ Gibson, Ian (1997). The shameful life of Salvador Dalí.
London: Faber and Faber. pp. 238–9. ISBN 0-571-19380-3.
24.^ Clocking in with Salvador Dalí: Salvador Dalí\'s Melting
Watches (PDF) from the Salvador Dalí Museum. Retrieved on
August 19, 2006.
25.^ a b Salvador Dalí, La Conquête de l’irrationnel (Paris:
Éditions surréalistes, 1935), p. 25.
26.^ Current Biography 1940, pp219–220
27.^ Luis Buñuel, My Last Sigh: The Autobiography of Luis
Buñuel, Vintage 1984. ISBN 0816643873
28.^ Greeley, Robin Adèle (2006). Surrealism and the
Spanish Civil War, Yale University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-300-
29.^ Jackaman, Rob. (1989) The Course of English Surrealist
Poetry Since the 1930s, Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-88946-
30.^ Current Biography 1940, p219
31.^ \"Program Notes by Andy Ditzler (2005) and Deborah
Solomon, \',Utopia Parkway:The Life of Joseph Cornell (New
York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2003)\".
Retrieved 2010-08-22.
32.^ Salvador Dalí Exhibition, Exhibition Catalogue –
February 16 through May 15, 2005
34.^ Bretell, Richard R. (1995). Impressionist paintings,
drawings, and sculpture from the Wendy and Emery Reeves
Collection. Dallas Museum of Art. ISBN 9780936227153.
35.^ a b Artcyclopedia: Salvador Dalí. Retrieved September
4, 2006.
36.^ a b Descharnes, Robert and Nicolas. Salvador Dalí. New
York: Konecky & Konecky, 1993. p. 35.
37.^ Luis Buñuel, My Last Sigh: The Autobiography of Luis
Buñuel (Vintage, 1984) ISBN 0816643873
38.^ a b c Dalí\'s gift to exorcist uncovered Catholic News
October 14, 2005
39.^ a b c Navarro, Vicente, PhD \"The Jackboot of Dada:
Salvador Dalí, Fascist\". Counterpunch. December 6, 2003.
Retrieved July 22, 2006.
40.^ López, Ignacio Javier. The Old Age of William Tell (A
study of Buñuel\'s Tristana). MLN 116 (2001): 295–314.
41.^ The Phantasmagoric Universe—Espace Dalí À
Montmartre. Bonjour Paris. Retrieved on August 22, 2006.
42.^ The History and Development of Holography. Holophile.
Retrieved on August 22, 2006.
43.^ Hello, Dalí. Carnegie Magazine. Retrieved on August
22, 2006.
44.^ Elliott H. King in Dawn Ades (ed.), Dalí, Bompiani Arte,
Milan, 2004, p. 456.
45.^ Salvador Dalí Bio, Art on 5th. Retrieved July 22, 2006.
Archived May 4, 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
46.^ Salvador Dalí at Le Meurice Paris and St Regis in New
York Andreas Augustin, ehotelier.com, 2007
47.^ \"Scotsman review of Dirty Dalí\". The Scotsman. UK.
Retrieved 2010-08-22.
48.^ The Dali I knew By Brian Sewell, thisislondon.co.uk
49.^ Ian Gibson (1997). The Shameful Life of Salvador Dalí.
W. W. Norton & Company.
50.^ a b Excerpts from the BOE – Website Heráldica y
Genealogía Hispana
51.^ Dalí as \"Marqués de Dalí de Púbol\" – Boletín Oficial del
Estado, the official gazette of the Spanish government
52.^ \"Dalí Resting at Castle After Injury in Fire\". The New
York Times. September 1, 1984. Retrieved July 22, 2006.
53.^ Mark Rogerson (1989). The Dalí Scandal: An
Investigation. Victor Gollancz. ISBN 0575037865.
54.^ Etherington -Smith, Meredith The Persistence of
Memory: A Biography of Dalí p. 411, 1995 Da Capo Press,
ISBN 0306806622
55.^ Etherington -Smith, Meredith The Persistence of
Memory: A Biography of Dalí pp. xxiv, 411–412, 1995 Da
Capo Press, ISBN 0306806622
56.^ http://www.salvador-dali.org/en_index.html | The Gala-
Salvador Dalí Foundation website
57.^ http://arsny.com/requested.html | Most frequently
requested artists list of the Artists Rights Society
58.^ Salvador Dalí, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (New
York: Dial Press, 1942), p. 317.
59.^ Michael Taylor in Dawn Ades (ed.), Dalí (Milan:
Bompiani, 2004), p. 342
60.^ a b Dalí Universe Collection. County Hall Gallery.
Retrieved on July 28, 2006.
61.^ a b \"Salvador Dalí\'s symbolism\". County Hall Gallery.
Retrieved on July 28, 2006
62.^ a b Lobster telephone. National Gallery of Australia.
Retrieved on August 4, 2006.
63.^ Tate Collection | Lobster Telephone by Salvador Dalí.
Tate Online. Retrieved on August 4, 2006.
64.^ Federico García Lorca. Pegásos. Retrieved on August 8,
65.^ a b c Dalí Rotterdam Museum Boijmans. Paris
Contemporary Designs. Retrieved on August 8, 2006.
66.^ Past Exhibitions. Haggerty Museum of Art. Retrieved
August 8, 2006.
67.^ \"Dali & Film\" Edt. Gale, Matthew. Salvador Dalí Museum
Inc. St Petersburg, Florida. 2007.
68.^ \"L\'Âge d\'Or (The Golden Age)\" Harvard Film Archive.
2006. April 10, 2008.
69.^ Short, Robert. \"The Age of Gold: Surrealist Cinema,
Persistence of Vision\" Vol. 3, 2002.
70.^ Elliott H. King, Dalí, Surrealism and Cinema, Kamera
Books 2007, p. 169.
71.^ a b Dalí: Explorations into the domain of science. The
Triangle Online. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
72.^ [Anon.] (1976). \"Faenza-Goldmedaille für SUOMI\". Artis
29: 8. ISSN 0004-3842.
73.^ a b c Prose, Francine. (2000) The Lives of the Muses:
Nine Women and the Artists they Inspired. Harper Perennial.
ISBN 0-06-055525-4.
74.^ Lear, Amanda. (1986) My Life with Dalí. Beaufort
Books. ISBN 0825303737.
75.^ Lozano, Carlos. (2000) Sex, Surrealism, Dalí, and Me.
Razor Books Ltd. ISBN 0953820505.
76.^ Etherington-Smith, Meredith. (1995) The Persistence of
Memory: A Biography of Dalí. Da Capo Press. ISBN
77.^ Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali, by
George Orwell
78.^ \"Payne, Stanley G. THE A History of Spain and Portugal,
Vol. 2, Ch. 26, p. 648–651 (Print Edition: University of
ONLINE Accessed May 15, 2007)\". Libro.uca.edu.
http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/payne26.htm. Retrieved 2010-
79.^ De la Cueva, Julio Religious Persecution, Anticlerical
Tradition and Revolution: On Atrocities against the Clergy
during the Spanish Civil War, Journal of Contemporary
History Vol XXXIII – 3, 1998
80.^ Salvador Dalí pictured with Francisco Franco[dead link]
81.^ The Surreal World of Salvador Dalí. Smithsonian
Magazine. 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2006.
82.^ \"The Salvador Dalí Online Exhibit\". MicroVision.
http://www.daliweb.tampa.fl.us/collection.htm. Retrieved
83.^ a b \"Dalí picture sprung from jail\". BBC. 2003-03-02.
[edit] References
•Linde Sabler. \"Dalí\". London: Haus Publishing, 2004
(paperback, ISBN 978-1-904341-75-8).
•Salvador Dali interviewed by Mike Wallace on The Mike
Wallace Interview April 19, 1985
[edit] External links
 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salvador Dalí
 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Salvador
Biographies and news
•Dalí\'s surreal wind-powered organ lacks only a rhinoceros
•UbuWeb: Salvador Dalí—Interview and bank advertisement.
•Salvador Dalí in the INA Archives – A collection of interviews
and footage of Dalí in the French television
•The Master Visualizer
Other links
•Salvador Dalí at the Museum of Modern Art
•Article on Dalí\'s religious faith
•The Salvador Dalí photo library 60.000 photos
•Article on Dalí\'s opera poem Être Dieu: opéra-poème,
audiovisuel et cathare en six parties (Being God: a Cathar
Audiovisual Opera-Poem in Six Parts)
•Watch Un Chien Andalou at LikeTelevision
•Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation English language site
•St. Petersburg Dalí Museum
•Kurutz, Steven, \"Hello, Dali: Surrealist Museum Becomes a
Reality\", The Wall Street Journal Speakeasy blog, January 11,
2011, 4:46 pm ET. Interview with St. Petersburg (FL)
museum director Dr. Hank Hine about new building.
•\"The shameful life of Salvador Dalí\" (the witches of Llers)\".
•Dalí and Fages: \"that intelligent and most cordial of
•Espace Dalí—The unique permanent exhibition in France
(Museum & Dalí Fine Art Galleries)
•Dalí & Film – Tate Modern, London
•Museum-Gallery Xpo: Salvador Dalí, Marquis de Púbol in
•Museum of Modern Art
•Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. ULAN Full
Record Display for Salvador Dalí. Getty Vocabulary Program,
Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California.
Authority control: LCCN: n79021554 | VIAF: 64004109
v · d · eSalvador Dalí
List of works
paintings Landscape Near Figueras (1910) • Vilabertran
(1913) • Fiesta in Figueres (1914–16) • Port of Cadaqués
(Night) (1918–19) • The Artist\'s Father at Llane Beach (1920)
• The Garden of Llaner (Cadaqués) (1920–21) • Cabaret
Scene (1922) • Cubist Self-Portrait with \"La Publicitat\" (1923)
• Self-portrait with L\'Humanitie (1923) • Portrait of Luis
Buñuel (1924) • Siphon and Small Bottle of Rum (1924) •
The Basket of Bread (1926) • Honey Is Sweeter Than Blood
(1927) • The Lugubrious Game (1929) • The First Days of
Spring (1929) • The Great Masturbator (1929) • The
Persistence of Memory (1931) • The Ghost of Vermeer of
Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table (1934) • Morphological
Echo (1934–36) • Archaeological Reminiscence of Millet\'s
Angelus (1935) • Autumn Cannibalism (1936) • Soft
Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War)
(1936) • The Burning Giraffe (1937) • Metamorphosis of
Narcissus (1937) • Swans Reflecting Elephants (1937) •
Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach (1938) • The
Sublime Moment (1938) • Shirley Temple, The Youngest,
Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time (1939) • The
Face of War (1940) • Slave Market with the Disappearing
Bust of Voltaire (1940) • Honey is Sweeter than Blood (1941)
• Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man
(1943) • Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a
Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening (1944) • Galarina
(1944–45) • Basket of Bread (1945) • The Temptation of St.
Anthony (1946) • The Elephants (1948) • Leda Atomica
(1949) • The Madonna of Port Lligat (1949) • Christ of Saint
John of the Cross (1951) • Galatea of the Spheres (1952) •
The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory (1952–54) •
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) (1954) • Young Virgin Auto-
Sodomized by the Horns of Her Own Chastity (1954) • The
Sacrament of the Last Supper (1955) • Living Still Life (1956)
• The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (1958–
59) • The Ecumenical Council (1959–60) •
Galacidalacidesoxyribonucleicacid (1963) • Tuna Fishing
(1966–67) • The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968–70) • La
Toile Daligram (1972) • The Swallow\'s Tail (1983)
Other works Writings: Un Chien Andalou (1929) • L\'Age d\'Or
(1930) • Giraffes on Horseback Salad (1937) • Libretto for
Bacchanale (1939) • The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942,
Films: Un Chien Andalou (1929) • L\'Age d\'Or (1930) •
Spellbound (1945, dream sequence) • Impressions of Upper
Mongolia (1975, narration)
Animated films: Destino (1946, completed 2003)
Logos: Chupa Chups
Opera: Être Dieu (1985)
Sculpture: Lobster Telephone (1936) • Mae West Lips Sofa
Costumes: costumes for García Lorca\'s play Mariana Pineda
Novels: Hidden Faces (1944)
Related articles Castle of Púbol • Dalí Universe • Espace Dalí
• Dalí Theatre and Museum • Salvador Dalí Museum •
Salvador Dalí (film) • Little Ashes • Gala Dalí • Paranoiac-
critical method
Name Dalí, Salvador
Alternative names Dalí, Salvador Felip Jacint, Domènech;
Dalí, Salvador Felipe Jacinto, Domènech
Short description 20th century Catalan surrealist artist
Date of birth May 11, 1904
Place of birth Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
Date of death January 23, 1989
Place of death Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
Retrieved from \"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dal
Categories: Salvador Dalí | 1904 births | 1989 deaths |
Catalan artists | Catalan painters | Exorcism | Légion
d\'honneur recipients | Marquesses of Spain | Modern artists |
Modern painters | People from Alt Empordà | People with
Parkinson\'s disease | Spanish sculptors | Spanish people |
Spanish painters | Spanish printmakers | Spanish Roman
Catholics | Surrealist artists | 20th-century painters
•This page was last modified on 17 July 2011 at 22:45.
   Web www.all-art.org
 Art of the 20th Century
Salvador Dali
If You Act the Genius, You Will Be One! 1910-1928
The Proof of Love 1929-1935
The Conguest of the Irrational 1936-1939
The Triumph of Avida Dollars 1939-1946
The Mystical Manifesto 1946-1962
Paths to Immortality 1962-1989
Biblia Sacrata, Marquis de Sade, Faust, The Art of Love,
Don Quixote, Divine Comedy, Decameron,
Casanova, Les Caprices de Goya
 Paths to Immortality
  I\'m not the clown!\" cried Dali in his own defence. \"But in its
naivety this monstrously cynical society does not see who is
simply putting on a serious act the better to hide his
madness. I cannot say it often enough: I am not mad. My
clear-sightedness has acquired such sharpness and
concentration that, in the whole of the century, there has
been no more heroic or more astounding personality than
me, and apart from Nietzsche (who finished by going mad,
though) my equal will not be found in other centuries either.
My painting proves it.\"
In point of fact, Dali observed the gradual decline of modern
art with contempt. As it slid into nothingness, he laughed to
see what Duchamp\'s ready-mades in Dada and Surrealist
days had led to. He was amused to see the urinal Duchamp
had exhibited in New York in 1911 as a sculpture titled
Fontaine. \"The first person to compare the cheeks of a young
woman with a rose was plainly a poet. The second, who
repeated the comparison, was probably an idiot. All the
theories of Dadaism and Surrealism are being monotonously
repeated: their soft contours have prompted countless soft
objects. The globe is being smothered in ready-mades. The
fifteen-metre loaf of bread is now fifteen kilometres long...
People have already forgotten that the founder of Dadaism,
Tristan Tzara, stated in his manifesto in the very infancy of
the movements: \'Dada is this. Dada is that... Either way, it\'s
crap.\' This kind of more or less black humour is foreign to the
new generation. They are genuinely convinced that their
neo-Dadaism is subtler than the art of Praxiteles.\"
Dali painting \"The Medusa of Sleep\" on Gala\'s forehead
  Dali recalled: \"During the last war, between Arcachon and
Bordeaux, Marcel Duchamp and I talked about the newly
awoken interest in preparations using excrement; tiny
secretions taken from the navel were considered \'luxury
editions\'. I replied that I would have liked to have a navel
secretion of Raphael. Now a well-known Pop artist is selling
artists\' excrement in Verona, in extremely stylish flacons, as
a luxury item. When Duchamp realised that he had scattered
the ideas of his youth to the winds, until he himself was left
with none, he most aristocratically declined to play the
game, and prophetically announced that other young men
were specializing in the chess match of contemporary art;
and then he began to play chess...\"
And Dali observed: \"At the time there were just seventeen
people in Paris who understood the ready-mades - the very
few ready-mades by Marcel Duchamp. Nowadays there are
seventeen million who understand them. When the day
comes that every object that exists is a ready-made, there
will no longer be any ready-mades at all. When that day
comes, originality will consist in creating a \"work of art out of
sheer urgent compulsion. The moral attitude of the ready-
made consists in avoiding contact with reality. Ready-mades
have subconsciously influenced the photo-realists, leading
them to paint ready-mades by hand. There can be no doubt
that if Vermeer van Delft or Gerard Dou had been alive in
1973, they would have had no objection to painting the
interior of a car or the outside of a telephone box...\"
 Medusa\'s Head
The Alchemist
  Dali declared: \"It is quite correct that I have made use of
photography throughout my life. I stated years ago that
painting is merely photography done by hand, consisting of
super-fine images the sole significance of which resides in
the fact that they were seen by a human eye and recorded
by a human hand. Every great work of art that I admire was
copied from a photograph. The inventor of the magnifying
glass was born in the same year as Vermeer. Not enough
attention has yet been paid to this fact. And I am convinced
that Vermeer von Delft used a mirror to view his subjects
and make tracings of them. Praxiteles, most divine of all
sculptors, copied his bodies faithfully, without the slightest
departure. Velazquez had a similar respect for reality, with
complete chastity...\" And: \"The hand of a painter must be so
faithful that it is capable of automatically correcting
constituents of Nature that have been distorted by a
photograph. Every painter must have an ultra-academic
training. It is only through virtuosity of such an order that the
possibility of something else becomes available: Art.\"
Dali prophetically added: \"I foresee that the new art will be
what I term \'quantum realism\'. It will take into account what
the physicists call quantum energy, what mathematics calls
chance, and what the artists call the imponderable: Beauty.
The picture of tomorrow will be a faithful image of reality,
but one will sense that it is a reality pervaded with
extraordinary life, corresponding to what is known as the
discontinuity of matter. Velazquez and Vermeer were
divisionists. They already intuited the fears of modern Man.
Nowadays, the most talented and sensitive painters merely
express the fear of indeterminism. Modern science says that
nothing really exists, and one sees scientists passionately
debating photographic plates on which there is
demonstrably nothing of a material nature. So artists who
paint their pictures out of nothing are not so far wrong. Still,
it is only a transitional phase. The great artist must be
capable of assimilating nothingness into his painting. And
that nothingness will breathe life into the art of tomorrow.\"
Hercules Lifts the Skin of the Sea and Stops Venus for an
Instant from Waking Love
  On 15 October 1962, Dali exhibited The Battle of Tetuan in
the Palacio del Tinell in Barcelona, alongside the picture by
Mariano Fortuny that had inspired it. To Dali\'s way of
thinking, it was the start of a war of pictures. In his own
work, as in Fortuny\'s, virtuosity was a function of carefully
quantified patchwork and dabs, from which substance the
images emerged suddenly. Dali illuminatingly commented
that when he considered the patterning of print on a
newspaper, what he saw was The Battle of Tetuan. Or soccer
games. In the Diary of a Genius he wrote (3 September
\"I have always been in the habit of looking at papers upside
down. Instead of reading the news, I look at it and I see it.
Even as an adolescent, I saw, among the typographical
spirals, and just by squinting, soccer games as they would
look on television. It even happened that before half time, I
had to go and rest, so exhausted was I by the ups and downs
of the game. Today, holding the papers upside down, I see
divine things moving at such a pace that I decide, in a
sublime inspiration of Dalinian pop art, to have pieces of
newspapers repainted which contain aesthetic treasures that
are often worthy of Phidias.
I shall have these newspapers, in outsize enlargements,
quantified by fly droppings... This idea occurs to me when I
notice the beauty of certain newspaper collages, yellowed
and a bit flyspecked, by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
This evening, while I am writing, I am listening to the radio,
which is resounding with the boom of guns that are
deservedly being fired for Braque\'s funeral. Braque - who is
famous among other things for his aesthetic discovery of
news-paper collages. And I dedicate in homage to him my
most transcendent and much more instantaneously famous
bust of Socrates quantified by flies.\"
 The Battle of Tetuan
Arabs. Study for \"The Battle of Tetuan\"
electrocular Monocle and the Paranoiac-Critical Method
 Dali took a lively interest in every kind of scientific
development, and in spring 1962 he returned from America
with an \"electrocular monocle\". This astounding gadget had
been developed by the electronics section of a major
aeronautics company. A recorder registered images and
transferred them televisually to a telescopic tube that
substituted for a screen, a telescope so constructed that the
eye could distinguish the televised image yet at the same
time see everything in its field of vision in a perfectly normal
way. For Dali, the painter needed a second type of vision,
occasioned by irritation of the retina. This double vision,
which others were prompting with the help of mescahn,
hallucinogenic mushrooms or LSD, could be caused by the
\"electrocular monocle\" instead. In conversations with a
professor named Jayle, a leading optics specialist, over the
course of several years, Dali had been expressing the wish
to have a kind of contact lens filled with fluid introduced into
the eye - so that images controlled from outside could even
be registered during sleep.
Mohammed\'s Dream (Homage to Fortuny)
  Dali was so excited by the \"electrocular monocle\" that he
immediately had one installed in the Catalan beret he
frequently wore. Dali - it is worth mentioning -never wore a
hat proper, but nonetheless liked to cover his head with the
most curious of headgear: for him, anything that touched his
hair possessed symbolic meaning. In his youth he had
shaved his head for the sake of doing so - to balance a sea
urchin. He was once even observed scooping out the soft
inside of a crouston loaf, which resembles a tricorn hat in
shape, and entering the most exclusive club in Figueras, the
\"Sport Figuerenc\", wearing his impromptu hat — causing a
scandal amongst the members. Later in London he made a
public appearance wearing a diving suit, and posed for
photographer Cecil Beaton in a fencer\'s mask.
If we are to grasp Dali\'s art correctly, we need to see how
capable he was of reigning in his imagination and his
dreams, in order to suit them to the subjects of his paintings.
His \"paranoiac-critical\" activity could be visited on random
materials suddenly and unexpectedly. For example, at a
time when Fortuny\'s The Battle of Tetuan had become an
obsession with Dali, he happened upon a major component
of the picture he himself planned to paint on the same
subject - in the American news magazine Time. One winter
evening in New York he discovered, in a trodden and
crumpled copy he found in the snow, a photograph of a
fantastic Arabian scene, and, quickly picking it up, declared:
\"I have found my battle of Tetuan.\" His imagination was
always rapid, as this anecdote concerning a newspaper
photograph reminds us.
Arabs - the Death of Raimundus Lullus
udy for Deoxyribonucleic Acid Arabs
  As a whole, Dali\' s work as a painter was governed by a
quest ruled by the need to discipline his inspiration and
technique. In 1948, at a time when he was working on Leda
Atomica, he began to take an active interest in the Divine
Proportions laid down in the 15th century by Fra Luca Pacioli.
With the assistance of Prince Matila Ghyka, a Romanian
mathematician, Dali spent almost three months calculating
the mathematical disposition of Leda Atomica. In all his
works to follow, his procedure was the same; he used the
golden section, the canon, and the principles of divine
proportion. Not long after, in the Nova Geometria of
Raimundus Lullus, he discovered arguably the most perfect
square in aesthetics, known as the Figura Magistralis.
Lullus\'s treatise was taken by the architect of El Escorial,
Juan de Herrera, as his guide when he composed his
discourse on cubic form; and Dali drew upon this work in the
composition of paintings such as Corpus Hypercubus, now in
New York\'s Metropolitan Museum. As with most great artists,
it was in fact an innate sixth sense for proportion that
enabled Dali to run the gamut of the aesthetic range. He was
able to endow the rules with life as he desired, whether they
derived from antiquity, the Middle Ages or the Renaissance.
Every good painter, Dali said, should proceed as Velazquez
did: using his sense of proportion and obeying every rule in
the book to the letter in the first version of a painting - and
then smashing up the lot, and indeed standing several of the
rules on their heads.
Macrophotographic Self-Portrait with
the Appearance of Gala
custom in Spain is for a woman to place her maiden name
before her married name and to associate the former with
the latter through a possessive \"of\", to emphasize that the
woman belongs to that particular man. The title of a book by
Robert Descharnes, Dalide Gala, thus inevitably suggests
that Dali belonged to Gala - and is quite correct to do so. It
was Gala who inspired Dali, Gala who kept him under
control, Gala who saw to the practicalities of their life
together. In the Secret Life, Dali confirmed that he would
have been nothing without Gala. It is useful to read
Descharnes\' book if we are to understand his work, and to
see that Gala was not only his wife but also adopted the
roles of his mother and sister. Psychiatrist Pierre
Roumeguere wrote a study of Dali\'s personality which nicely
complements Dali\'s own mythology of Gala. In it, Dali is cast
as Pollux, while his dead brother is Castor and Gala Helen.
That is to say, after having been Leda\'s mother, Gala
became the immortal sister of Pollux, and Leda\'s daughter.
Roumeguere\'s theory changes the contours of the Port Lligat
house: suddenly we have to accommodate an extra oval, the
egg in which Gala and Dali were united, in our ideas.
Fifty Abstract Paintings Which as Seen from Two Yards
Change into
Three Lenins Masquerading as Chinese and as Seen from Six
Appear as the Head of a Royal Bengal Tiger
 from now on, Dali lived with two idees fixes: that of the
Dioscuri, and that of cybernetic science. His mind was busy
looking for correlations between the two areas. One of the
preliminary sketches for The Battle of Tetuan bears the
dedication, \"For Helen from her Dioscuri\". Dali was excited to
discover that the word \"cybernetic\" was etymologically
derived from the Greek \"kybernetes\", a steersman or pilot.
For Plato, the pilot\'s task was clear. The captain chose a
harbour into which the craft was to be sailed. The helmsman
adjusted the rudder in order to steer the vessel in the
required direction. And the pilot ensured that the helmsman
was continually aware how to use his rudder in order to
reach the harbour. In this joint effort, the captain took the
decision on a goal, the helmsman steered, and the pilot gave
guidance. The pilot, in other words, is cybernetic in terms of
his activity; and this derivation and meaning of the word
struck Dali powerfully, since he saw himself as the pilot of
his own life. But he went a step further and found a way of
associating this with his other current obsession, with the
Dioscuri. Was it not the task of Castor and Pollux, in
antiquity, to guide ships ? Having made this connection, Dali
averred that, with the remote guidance of the Dioscuri, he
was piloting the boat of their life, with Gala\'s hand firmly on
the rudder.
venus with Drawers
 venus\' Otorhinologic Head
 The Sacred Heart of Jesus
St. George and the Dragon
Twist in the Studio of Velazquez
Vision of Fatima
Madonna with a Mystical Rose
Untitled (Still Life with Lilies)
The Judgement of Paris
Portrait of My Dead Brother
Landscape with Flies
Untitled (St. John)
The Sun of Dali
Female Nude (after restoration)
Bust of Dante
  Modern Rhapsody\" from the 1957 series \"The Seven Arts\"
\"The Conquest of the Irrational\" of 1935, one of several
manifestos Dali wrote, is reprinted here as translated from
the French by Joachim Neugroschel.
The images shown on this page are not intended
to match the context.
We all know that the brilliant and sensational progress of the
individual sciences, the glory and honour of the “space” and
the era we live in, involves, on the one hand, the crisis and
the overwhelming disrepute of “logical intuition”, and on the
other hand, the respect for irrational factors and hierarchies
as new positive and specifically productive values.
We must bear in mind that pure and logical intuition, pure
intuition, I repeat, a pure maid of all work, in the private
homes of the particular sciences, had been carrying about in
her womb an illegitimate child who was nothing less than the
child of physics proper; and by the time Maxwell and
Faraday were at work, this son was noticeably weighed down
with an unequivocal persuasiveness and a personal force of
gravity that left no doubt about the father of the child:
Because of this downward pull and the force of gravity, pure
intuition, after being booted out of the homes of all the
particular sciences, has now turned into pure prostitution, for
we see her offering her final charms and final turbulences in
the brothel of the artistic and literary world.
It is under cultural circumstances like these that our
contemporaries, systematically cretinised by the mechanism
and architecture of self-punishment, by the psychological
congratulations of bureaucracy, by ideological chaos, and
the austerity of imagination, by paternal wastelands of
emotion, and other wastelands, waste their energy biting
into the senile and triumphal tastiness of the plump, atavitic,
tender, military, and territorial back of some Hitlerian
nursemaid, in order to finally manage to communicate in
some fashion or other with the consecrated totemic host
which has been whisked away from under their very noses
and which, we all know, was nothing but the spiritual and
symbolical sustenance that Catholicism has been offering for
centuries to appease the cannibalistic frenzy of moral and
irrational starvation.
For, in point of fact, the contemporary hunger for the
irrational is always keenest before a cultural dining table
offering only the cold and unsubstantial leftovers of art and
literature and the burning analytical preciseness of the
particular sciences, momentarily incapable of any nutritive
synthesis because of their disproportionate scope and
specialisation, and in all events totally unassimilable except
by speculative cannibalism.
Here lies the source of the enormous nutritive and cultural
responsibility of surrealism, a responsibility that has been
growing more and more objective, encroaching, and
exclusivist with each new cataclysm of collective famine,
each new gluttonous, viscous, ignominious and sublime bite
of the fearful jaws of the masses wolfing down the
congested, bloody, and preeminently biological cutlet of
It is under these circumstances that Salvador Dali, clutching
the precise apparatus of paranoid-critical activity, and less
willing than ever to desert his uncompromising cultural post,
has for a long time now been suggesting that we might do
well to eat up the surrealities, too; for we surrealists are the
sort of high-quality, decadent, stimulating, immoderate and
ambivalent foodstuff which, with the utmost tact and
intelligence, agrees with the gamy, paradoxical and
succulently truculent state proper to, and characteristic of,
the climate of moral and ideological confusion in which we
have the honour and the pleasure to be living.
For we surrealists, as you will realise by paying us some
slight attention, are not quite artists, nor are we really
scientists; we are caviar, and believe me, caviar is the
extravagance and the very intelligence of taste, especially in
concrete times like the present in which the above
mentioned hungering for the irrational, albeit an
incommensurable, impatient, and imperialist hungering, is so
exasperated by the salivary expectations of waiting, that in
order to arrive progressively at its glorious conquests close
by, it must first swallow the fine, heady, and dialectical
grape of caviar, without which the heavy and stifling food of
the next ideologies would threaten immediately to paralyse
the vital and philosophical rage of the belly of history.
For caviar is the life experience not only of the sturgeon, but
of the surrealists as well, because, like the sturgeon, we are
carnivorous fish, who, as I have already hinted, swim
between two bodies of water, the cold water of art and the
warm water of science; and it is precisely due to that
temperature and to our swimming against the current that
the experience of our lives and our fecundation reaches that
turbid depth, that irrational and moral hyperlucidity possible
only in the climate of Neronian osmosis that results from the
living and continuous fusion of the sole’s thickness and its
crowned heat, the satisfaction and the circumcision of the
sole and the corrugated iron, territorial ambition and
agricultural patience, keen collectivism and visors propped
up by letters of white on the old billiard cushions and letters
of white on the old millyard Russians, all sorts of warm and
dermatological elements, which, in short, are the coexisting
and characteristic elements presiding over the notion of the
“imponderable”, a sham notion unanimously recognised as
functioning as an epithet for the elusive taste of caviar and
hiding the timid and gustatory germs of concrete
irrationality, which, being merely the apotheosis and the
paroxysm of the objective imponderable, constitutes the
divisionist exactness and precision of the very caviar of
imagination and will constitute, exclusively and
philosophically, the terribly demoralising and terribly
complicated result of my experiences and inventions in
For one thing is certain: I hate any form of simplicity
It seems perfectly transparent to me that my enemies, my
friends and the general public allegedly do not understand
the meaning of the images that arise and that I transcribe
into my paintings. How can anyone expect them to
understand when I myself, the “maker”, don’t understand
my paintings either.
The fact that I myself, at the moment of painting, do not
understand their meaning doesn’t imply that these paintings
are meaningless: on the contrary, their meaning is so deep,
complex, coherent and involuntary that it eludes the simple
analysis of logical intuition.
In order to reduce my paintings to the level of the vernacular
and explain them, I should have to submit them to special
analyses, preferably of a scientific rigor and as ambitiously
objective as possible. After all, any explanation occurs a
posteriori, once the painting exists as a phenomenon.
 My sole pictorial ambition is to materialise by means of the
most imperialist rage of precision the images of concrete
irrationality. The world of imagination and the world of
concrete irrationality may be as objectively evident,
consistent, durable, as persuasively, cognoscitively and
communicably thick as the exterior world of phenomenal
reality. The important thing, however, is that which one
wishes to communicate: the irrational concrete subject.
The pictorial means of expression are concentrated on the
subject. The illusionism of the most abjectly arriviste and
irresistible mimetic art, the clever tricks of a paralysing
foreshortening, the most analytically narrative and
discredited academicism, can become sublime hierarchies of
thought when combined with new exactness of concrete
irrationality as the images of concrete irrationality approach
the phenomenal Real, the corresponding means of
expression approach those of great realist painting —
Velasquez and Vermeer de Delft — to paint realistically in
accordance with irrational thinking and the unknown
imagination. Instantaneous photography, in colour and done
by hand, of superfine, extravagant, extra-plastic, extra-
pictorial, unexplored, deceiving, hypernormal, feeble images
of concrete irrationality — images momentarily
unexplainable and irreducible either by systems of logical
intuition or by rational mechanisms.
The images of concrete irrationality are thus authentically
unknown images.
Surrealism, in its first period, offers specific methods for
approaching the images of concrete irrationality. These
methods, based on the exclusively passive and receptive
role of the surrealist subject, are being liquidated to make
way for new surrealist methods of the systematic exploration
of the irrational. The pure psychic automatism, dreams,
experimental oneirism, surrealist objects with symbolic
functioning, the ideography of instincts, phosphenomenal
and hypnagogical irritation, etc, now occur per se as
nonevolutive processes.
Furthermore, the images obtained offer two serious
(1) they cease being unknown images, because by falling
into the realm of psychoanalysis they are easily reduced to
current and logical speech albeit continuing to offer an
uninterpretable residue and a very vast and authentic
margin of enigma, especially for the greater public;
(2) their essentially virtual and chimerical character no
longer satisfies our desires or our “principles of verification”
first announced by Breton in his Discourse on the Smidgen of
Ever since, the frenzied images of surrealism desperately
tend toward their tangible possibility, their objective and
physical existence in reality. Only those people who are
unaware of this can still flounder about in the gross
misunderstanding of the “poetic escape”, and continue to
believe our mysticism of the fantastic and our fanaticism of
the marvellous.
I, for my part, believe that the era of inaccessible
mutilations, unrealisable bloodthirsty osmoses, flying
visceral lacerations, hair-rocks, catastrophic uprootings, is
over as far as experimentation goes, although this era may
quite probably continue to constitute the exclusive
iconography of a large period of surrounding surrealist
The new frenzied images of concrete irrationality tend
toward their real and physical “possibility”; they go beyond
the domain of psychoanalysable “virtual” hallucinations and
These images present the evolutive and productive
character characteristic of the systematic fact. Eluard’s and
Breton’s attempts at simulation, Breton’s recent object-
poems, René Magritte’s latest pictures, the “method” of
Picasso’s latest sculptures, the theoretical and pictorial
activity of Salvador Dali, etc .... prove the need of concrete
materialisation in current reality, the moral and systematic
condition to assert, objectively and on the level of the Real,
the frenzied unknown world of our rational experiences.
Contrary to dream memory, and the virtual and impossible
images of purely receptive states, “which one can only
narrate”, it is the physical facts of “objective” irrationality
with which one can really hurt oneself.
It was in 1929 that Salvador Dali turned his attention to the
internal mechanism of paranoid phenomena, envisaging the
possibility of an experimental method based on the power
that dominates the systematic associations peculiar to
paranoia; subsequently this method was to become the
frenzied-critical synthesis that bears the name of “paranoid-
critical activity”.
Paranoia: delirium of interpretative association involving a
systematic structure — paranoid-critical activity:
spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the
interpretative-critical association of delirium phenomena.
The presence of active and systematic elements peculiar to
paranoia warrant the evolutive and productive character
proper to paranoid-critical activity. The presence of active
and systematic elements does not presuppose the idea of
voluntarily directed thinking or of any intellectual
compromise whatsoever; for, as we all know, in paranoia,
the active and systematic structure is consubstantial with
the delirium phenomenon itself — any delirium phenomenon
with a paranoid character, even an instantaneous and
sudden one, already involves the systematic structure “in
full” and merely objectifies itself a posteriori by means of
critical intervention.
 Critical activity intervenes uniquely as a liquid revealer of
systematic images, associations, coherences, subtleties such
as are earnest and already in existence at the moment in
which delirious instantaneity occurs and which, for the
moment to that degree of tangible reality, paranoid-critical
activity permits to return to objective light. Paranoid-critical
activity is an organising and productive force of objective
Paranoid-critical activity does not consider surrealist images
and phenomena in isolation, but ia a whole coherent context
of systematic and significant relationships. Contrary to the
passive, impartial, contemplative and aesthetic attitude of
irrational phenomena, the active, systematic, organising,
cognoscitive attitude of these same phenomena are
regarded as associative, partial, and significant events, in
the authentic domain of our immediate and practical life-
The main point is the systematic-interpretative organisation
of surrealist experimental sensational material, scattered
and narcissistic.
In fact, the surrealists events during the course of a day:
nocturnal emissions, distorted memories, dreams,
daydreaming, the concrete transformation of the nighttime
phosphene into a hypnagogical image or the waking
phosphene into an objective image, the nutritive whim,
intrauterine claims, anamorphic hysteria, deliberate
retention of urine, involuntary retention of insomnia, the
chance image of exclusivist exhibitionism, an abortive act, a
delirious address, regional sneezing, the anal wheelbarrow,
the minute error, Lilliputian malaise, the supernormal
physiological state, the painting one stops oneself from
painting, the painting one does paint, the territorial
telephone call, the “upsetting image”, etc, etc, all this, I say,
and a thousand other instantaneous or successive concerns,
revealing a minimum of irrational intentionality, or, just the
opposite, a minimum of suspect phenomenal nullity, are
associated, by the mechanisms of the precise apparatus of
paranoid-critical activity, in an indestructible
deliriointerpretative system of political problems, paralytical
images, questions of a more or less mammalian nature,
playing the role of an obsessive idea.
Paranoid-critical activity organises and objectifies
exclusivistically the unlimited and unknown possibilities of
the systematic association of subjective and objective
phenomena presenting themselves to us as irrational
concerns, to the exclusive advantage of the obsessive idea.
Paranoid-critical activity thus reveals new and objective
“meanings” of the irrational; it tangibly makes the very
world of delirium pass to the level of reality.
Paranoid phenomena: well-known images with a double
figuration — the figuration can be multiplied theoretically
and practically-everything hinges on the paranoid capacity
of the author.
The basis of associative mechanisms and the renewal of
obsessive ideas permits, as is the case in a recent painting
of Salvador Dali’s, the presentation, in the course of
elaboration, of six simultaneous images none of which
undergo the slightest figurative transformation — an
athlete’s torso, a lion’s head, a general’s head, a horse, the
bust of a shepherdess, a skull.
Different spectators see different images in the same
painting; it goes without saying that the realisation is
scrupulously realistic.
An example of paranoid-critical activity: Salvador Dali’s next
book, \"The Tragic Myth of Millet’s \'Angelus\',” in which the
method of paranoid-critical activity is applied to the delirium
fact that constitutes the obsessional character of Millet’s
Art history must therefore be refurbished in accordance with
the method of “paranoid-critical activity”; according to this
method, such apparently dissimilar paintings as Leonardo’s
\"Mona Lisa\", Millet’s \"Angelus\", Watteau’s \"Embarkation for
Cythera\" actually depict the very same subject matter, that
is to say, exactly the same thing.
The flagrant lack of philosophic and general culture in the
cheerful propellers of that model of mental deficiency that
calls itself abstract art, abstraction-creation, nonfigurative
art, etc, is one of the authentically sweetest things from the
viewpoint of the intellectual and “modern” desolation of our
Retarded Kantians, sticky with their scatological golden
means, never stop wanting to offer us on the new optimism
of their shiny paper, this soup of abstract aesthetics, which
in reality is even worse than those colossally sordid warmed-
up noodle soups of neo-Thomism, which even the most
convulsively famished cats wouldn’t touch with a 10-foot
If, as they claim, forms and colours have their own aesthetic
value beyond their “representational” value and their
anecdotal meaning, then bow could they resolve and explain
the classical paranoid image,with its double and
simultaneous representation, which can easily offer a strictly
imitative image, ineffective from their point of view and yet,
with no change, an image that’s plastically valid and rich?
Such is the case with that tiny ultra-anecdotal figurine of a
sprightly reclining pickaninny in the style of Meissonier; the
boy, if looked at vertically is merely the ultra-rich and even
plastically succulent shadow of a Pompeian nose — highly
respectable on account of its degree of abstraction-creation!
The ingenious experiment of Picasso simply proves the
material conditional nature, the deifying and ineluctable
nature, in regard to the physical and geometric precisions of
aesthetic systems, biological and frenetic systems of the
concrete object. Since I feel inspired to do so, permit me to
speak to you in verse:
The biological and
dynastic phenomenon
that constitutes the Cubism
of Picasso
the first great imaginative cannibalism
surpassing the experimental ambitions
of modern mathematical
physics. Picasso’s life
will form the not yet understood
polemical basis
in accordance with which
physical psychology
will reopen
a gap of living flesh
and obscurity
in philosophy.
For because
of the anarchic and systematic
we shall know physically
and without the
“problematic” psychological innovations
with a Kantian flavour
of the “gestalt-ists”
all the misery
objects of conscience
localised and comfortable
with their cowardly atoms
the infinite and
For the hypermaterialist thought
of Picasso
that the cannibalism of the race
“the intellectual species”
regional wine
the family fly
of the phenomenologist mathematics
the future
that there is such a thing as extra-psychological
“strict figures”
the imaginative fat
the monetary idealisms
transfinite arithmetics
and sanguinary mathematics
between the “structural” entity
of an “obsessive sole”
and the conduct of living beings
in contact with the “obsessive sole”
for the sole in question
totally exterior
to the understanding
the gestalt theory
this theory of the strict
and structure
has no
physical means
the analysis
or even
the registering
of human behaviour
with regard to
and figures
physically delirious
there is no such
thing now
as far as I know
as a physics
of psychopathology
a physics of paranoia
which might be considered
the experimental basis
of the coming
of the
the coming
philosophy of “paranoid-critical” activity
which some day
I shall try to envisage polemically
If I have the time
and the inclination.
\"Singularities\", circa 1936
There exists a perpetual and synchronic physical
materialisation of the great semblances of thought such as
Heraclitus meant when he intelligently wept his heart out at
the self-modesty of nature.
The Greeks realised it in their statues of psychological gods,
a transformation of the obscure and turbulent passions of
man into a clear, analytical, and carnal anatomy.
Today, physics is the new geometry of thought; and, while
for the Greeks, space such as Euclid understood it was
merely an extremely distant abstraction inaccessible to the
timid “three-dimensional continuum” that Descartes was to
proclaim later on, nowadays space has, as you know,
become a terribly material, terribly personal, and terribly
meaningful physical object that squeezes us all like real
Whereas the Greeks, as I have said above, materialised their
Euclidean psychology and feelings in the nostalgic and
divine muscular clarity of their sculptors, Salvador Dali,
faced in 1935 with the anguishing and colossal problem of
Einsteinian space-time, is not content with
anthropomorphism, libidinous arithmetic, or flesh: instead,
be makes cheese.
Take my word for it, Salvador Dali’s famous melted watches
are nothing but tender paranoid-critical Camembert, the
extravagant and solitary Camembert of time and space.
In conclusion, I must beg your pardon, before the authentic
famine that I assume honours my readers, for having begun
this theoretical meal, which one might have hoped to be wild
and cannibalistic, with the civilised imponderable factor of
caviar and finishing it with the even headier and
deliquescent imponderable of Camembert.
Don’t let yourself be taken in: these two superfine
semblances of the imponderable conceal a finer, well-known,
sanguinary, and irrational grilled cutlet that will eat all of us
lorca\'s \'Ode to Dali\'
  1904-1929, Spain, Cadaques, Dali Museum Florida, Family,
Gala, Morse, Religion & the occult
ali’s sister Ana Maria was born. Seen here in his 1924
portrait, she would be almost the only female model in his
paintings until he met his wife Gala in 1929. In 1949 she
published a memoir, “Dali as Seen by His Sister”.
Dali was, by his own ready admission, thoroughly spoiled by
his family. Apart from being barred from fraternising with the
household staff in the kitchen, he wrote in “The Secret Life”,
“I was allowed to do anything I pleased. I wet my bed till I
was eight for the sheer fun of it. I was the absolute monarch
of the house. Nothing was good enough for me. My father
and mother worshiped me.
“On the day of the Feast of Kings I received among
innumerable gifts a dazzling king’s costume — a gold crown
studded with great topazes and an ermine cape; from that
time on I lived almost continually disguised in this costume.”
Perhaps inevitably, his sister would suffer as a result of
Salvador’s elevated status in the household. When he was
six, in 1910, he recalled, the appearance of Halley’s comet
created quite a stir. When everyone rushed up to the terrace
of the house one day upon hearing that it was visible, Dali
remained paralysed because someone had suggested its tail
might touch the earth and destroy it.
When he finally set out to join them he noticed Ana crawling
through a doorway.
“I stopped, hesitated a second, then gave her a terrible kick
in the head as though it had been a ball, and continued
running, carried away with a ‘delirious joy’ induced by this
savage act.
“But my father, who was behind me, caught me and led me
down into his office, where I remained for punishment till
“The fact of not having been allowed to see the comet has
remained seared in my memory as one of the most
intolerable frustrations of my life. I screamed with such rage
that I completely lost my voice.
“Noticing how this frightened my parents, I learned to make
use of the stratagem on the slightest provocation.
“On another occasion when I happened to choke on a
fishbone my father, who couldn’t stand such things, got up
and left the dining room holding his head between his hands.
Thereafter on several occasions I simulated the hacking and
hysterical convulsions that accompany such choking just to
observe my father’s reaction and to attract an anguished
and exclusive attention to my person.”
Salvador’s brutal kicking of his sister didn’t prevent him from
lunging to her defence when the family doctor came to the
house to pierce her earlobes. Reacting to what he perceived
as “outrageous cruelty”, he waited for the doctor to settle
into position to perform the operation.
“Then I broke into the room brandishing my leather-thonged
mattress beater and whipped the doctor right across the
face, breaking his glasses. He was quite an old man and he
cried out with pain. When my father came running in he fell
on his shoulder …
“Since then I loved to be sick, if only for the pleasure of
seeing the little face of that old man whom I had reduced to
In “The Secret Life”, Dali happily chronicled his horrendous
childhood behaviour. It should be stressed, however, that
biographer Ian Gibson found little that was bizarre in Dali’s
youth, the suggestion being that Salvador deliberately
invented myths to enliven this era and cast himself in a cruel
and macabre light.
Dali remembered catching a bat and biting it nearly in two,
and at school — the Immaculate Conception primary school,
run by the Brothers of the Marist Order — deliberately
throwing himself down stone staircases just so he could
relish the attention he received.
“The Broken Bridge and the Dream”, 1945
Earlier in his autobiography, Dali described another cruel
episode. He was five at the time, and walking alongside a
smaller boy on a tricycle, pushing him along. They were on
the edge of the village of “Cambrils near Barcelona”, he
wrote, and came to a bridge under construction.
Salvador was suddenly seized with the impulse to injure the
boy. He made sure no one was watching and pushed the
child over the edge, sending him five metres to the rocks
The boy was laid up for a week “with a badly injured head”,
but in the initial commotion back at the house, Dali sat in a
parlour chair quietly eating cherries. “I don’t recall having
experienced the slightest feeling of guilt over this incident,”
he wrote.
“There is no doubt that Dali really committed this atrocious
deed,” Carlos Rojas and Alma Amell insist in their 1993
biography “Salvador Dali, Or The Art of Spitting on Your
Mother’s Portrait”.
They note with surprise, though, that “as if his superego
censored at least a symbolic part of these memories, he
gives the wrong name for the place”.
Since he places the location near Barcelona, they say, it
couldn’t have been Cambrils, which is in Tarragona, but
Cabrils, some 120 kilometres away. Below is a almost
surrealistic Google Earth image of houses on a hill in Cabrils.
Rosa Salleras, another Figueras native, was a childhood
friend of Dali’s, six years younger but a frequent playmate,
“a kind of younger sister”, as Ewen Carmichael described her
in a 2004 article for the Scotsman, a recollection of meeting
her before her death two years earlier.
Their parents’ summer homes were next to each other in
Cadaqués, and when Rosa was nine and Dali 16 he painted
her “standing high above the Bay of Cadaqués”.
“On first glance it appears raw and amateurish,” Carmichael
wrote, “but on closer inspection the true genius of Dali
shines through. It is an extraordinary painting for one so
young and captured the mood of the child-woman.”
Rosa said Dali, always short of money and materials, painted
a landscape on the reverse side.
It’s not clear what painting they’re discussing, but the 1918
canvas above — “View of Port d’Alguer, Cadaqués” in the
collection of the Dali Museum in Florida — was originally
owned by “Rosa Salleras de Naveira”, and then by
Barcelona’s Galeria Maragall, where Eleanor and Reynolds
Morse purchased it.
Below, two canvases that might “stand in”, but painted
much later and hardly “amateurish”.
“Girl of Cadaques”, from 1926
“Portrait of a Girl in a Landscape (Cadaques)”, circa 1926
Rosa remembered Dali — who she characterised as timid,
shy and always blushing in front of girls — teaching her to
catch bats by tying white cloths to the top of poles and
waving them around until the bats fell exhausted to the
Dali’s father, she said, “was a sort of dictatorial man” who
reminded her of Mussolini.
And Rosa remembered, as well, Ana Maria’s dismay when
Gala arrived on the scene.
Dali’s sister “was furious”, she said. “And she was hurt. I
think she was very jealous because she was always in the
front row. Whenever Salvador was invited, Ana Maria was
invited. She was the first lady. Then when Salvador met and
married Gala, Ana Maria didn’t have any place.”
1904-1929, 1930-1939, Spain, Paris, Cadaques, Da Vinci,
Family, Picasso, Sex, Vermeer, Velazquez
The promise of the Tower Mill
The Pichot family of Barcelona — the name is often seen as
Pixtot, the Catalan version, and Dali spelled it Pitchot in his
1942 autobiography — also had a farm-estate just outside
Figueras called El Moli de la Torre, the Tower Mill.
Various sources say it’s just on the way into town along the
highway that runs from Roses on the Cap de Creus peninsula
across the Empordà plain. In the Google Earth image above
you can see the husks of some buildings. The N-260
motorway from Roses slices up into Figueras, parallel with
the smaller Carrer del Port de la Selva. The blacktop
thoroughfare looping off the N-260, past the ruins, is Cami
del Moli. The area is all industrial, with a water-purification
plant nearby and, alongside the Cami del Moli, a canal that,
at a stretch, might once have powered a mill.
It’s not much evidence on which to hang a claim that this is
where Dali “learned to paint”, at the Pichot family business,
a fulling mill, but his story is prone to apparitions in the heat
of the Catalonian sun.
Fulling mills, sometimes called tucking or walking mills, are
where cloth, usually woollen, is cleaned of oil, dirt and other
impurities, a process that makes it thicker. The adolescent
Dali was more interested in other things he found on the
estate, the female family members and labourers included.
There were, most importantly though, Ramon Pichot’s
paintings, hung throughout the house, a source of
fascination for Salvador, who in turn began committing the
surrounding landscape to canvas as early as 1914.
Salvador was a chronically ill child, and not all of his ailments
were imaginary, so “my parents decided to send me to the
country for a rest; I was to visit the Pitchot family.
“My parents before me had already undergone the influence
of the personality of the Pitchot family. All of them were
artists and possessed great gifts and an unerring taste.
Ramon Pitchot was a painter, Ricardo a cellist, Luis a
violinist, Maria a contralto who sang in the opera.
“Pepito was, perhaps, the most artistic of all without,
however, having cultivated any of the fine arts in particular.
But it was he who created the house at Cadaques, and who
had a unique sense of the garden and of life in general.
“Mercedes, too, was a Pitchot 100 per cent, and she was
possessed of a mystical and fanatical sense of the house.
She married that great Spanish poet Eduardo Marquina, who
brought to the picturesque realism of this Catalonian family
the Castillian note of austerity and of delicacy which was
necessary for the climate of civilisation of the Pitchot family
to achieve its exact point of maturity.”
Pepito Pichot persuaded Dali’s father to let the boy take
lessons from the German portrait and landscape artist
Siegfrid Burmann, who was staying in Cadaques at the time.
The mill’s tower resonated like a dream image in “The
Dream Approaches” from 1933, above, and below, “The
Horseman of Death” and “The Tower”, both from a year
In “The Dream Approaches”, a sheet covers what could be a
coffin, atop which sits an object resembling female genitalia.
The tower is a decrepit symbol of death as well as desire. In
his autobiography Dali recalled the tower mill as the setting
for his first sexual — and violent — urges toward a girl.
There’s little doubt that the tower recurs in his art as a
phallic symbol.
‘’Naked, and comparing myself to my schoolfriends, I
discovered that my penis was small, pitiful and soft,” Dali
told Andre Parinaud in 1976 for what became “The
Unspeakable Confessions Of Salvador Dali”.
“I can recall a pornographic novel whose Don Juan machine-
gunned female genitals with ferocious glee, saying that he
enjoyed hearing women creak like watermelons. I convinced
myself that I would never be able to make a woman creak
like a watermelon.”
Having a small penis is a common self-criticism among men,
of course, but biographer Ian Gibson, having scoured
Salvador’s adolescent writings with a magnifying glass, said
he’d found ample evidence in the frank outpourings that the
young Dali’s relationship with his first girlfriend had suffered
because of his shortcoming and he ended up masturbating
Presumably the “revelation” is important to art historians
trying to track the meaning of Dali’s paintings, in which
masturbation, like the tower, was a regular theme.
Louis Markoya of the Collect Dali Yahoo Group, Dali’s
protege in the 1970s, has serious doubts about Gibson’s
credibility, but points out that Salvador had his own spin on
the subject in his book “Dali on Modern Art: The Cuckolds of
Antiquated Modern Art”. Intriguingly, he said he could tell
the size of any given artist’s penis by his work.
The artists he disliked most tended to have large penises
that he said weighed them down and made them stupid and
incapable of painting or drawing anything beautiful. The
reverse was true for geniuses, including himself, Raphael,
Vermeer, Leonardo and Velazquez. (He rated himself against
these same individuals as an artist, too. See this post.)
“Not only did the smaller glans allow you to be a genius
(’allowing a lightness only angels can appreciate and
acquire’), but it brought you further along on the
evolutionary scale, closer to the angels themselves,” Louis
says by way of explaining Dali’s reasoning.
“As with many things Dali, he cited some proofs which
included the sizes of Raphael’s cherubs’ penises, and the
size of Leonardo’s ‘Vitruvian Man’, whom he insisted was
modelled after Leonardo himself.
“One place Dali said he was stumped,” Louis continues, “was
with Picasso, who, Dali said, had a large penis, and was also
a genius, something that Dali said was no easy feat, and it
even garnered extra admiration for his Spanish compatriot
— but at the same time he cuckolded him, since Dali was
naturally more evolved, angelic and capable of ascension.”
Sold at auction in 2007 for $2,368,000, “Nostalgic Echo”
from 1935 features another sort of tower, this one the
belltower at Ana Maria Dali’s school in Figueras, according to
Robert Descharnes. A girl skipping rope can be seen inside,
an echo of the figure on the ground before it.
Even Descharnes, Dali’s close friend and the most widely
accepted authority on his work, couldn’t place the other
elements, but in 1941 Museum of Modern Art curator James
Thrall Soby suggested a keyhole forming the letter “i” in the
pentagonal portal, an image repeated by the bell tower.
“Morphological Echo” came after this work, and Giorgio de
Chirico’s “Mystery and Melancholy of a Street” preceded it,
and from the latter there is indeed an echo of imminent
danger in the isolation.
“De Chirico’s calm and tranquility,” Dali said, “was dramatic
because constantly threatened. All that geometric
anaesthesia was moving because it abandoned futurism and
vaguely foreshadowed surrealism”.
Detail from “A Hairdresser Preoccupied by the Persistence of
Good Weather”, 1932
Just as crucially in the Dali hierarchy of emblems, the Tower
Mill was the first place he ever saw a crutch, and he
explained in “The Secret Life” how it came to be such a
ubiquitous feature of his art.
He and his cousin Julia were helping fetch ladders for the
linden-blossom pickers from the tower attic, “immense and
dark, cluttered with miscellaneous objects” and heretofore
out of bounds to him.
“I immediately discovered two objects which stood out with
a surprising personality.” One was a crown of gilded laurel
stems that had been made for an opera star performing in
Barcelona, and the second was a crutch, of which Dali
immediately took possession.
“I felt that I should never again in my life be able to separate
myself from it, such was the fetishistic fanaticism which
seized me at the very first without my being able to explain
it. The superb crutch!
“Already it appeared to me as the object possessing the
height of authority and solemnity. It immediately replaced
the old mattress beater with leather fringes which I had
adopted a long time ago as a sceptre and which I had lost
one day …
“I victoriously descended into the garden, hobbling solemnly
with my crutch in one hand. This object communicated to me
an assurance, an arrogance even, which I had never been
capable of until then.”
SUPPORT GROUP: Clockwise from top left, “The Persistence
of Fine Weather” detail, “Meditation on the Harp”, “The
Spectre of Sex Appeal” detail and “Average
Atmospherocephalic Bureaucrat in the Act of Making a
Cranial Harp”
The totemic power of his crutch was bolstered when he used
it to poke at and then flip over his pet hedgehog when he
found it dead and maggot-ridden. Clearly it was a tool useful
even against death, and it came in supremely handy again a
decade later, when Dali was struggling to gain entry into
Paris high society.
He reasoned that the artistocratic and wealthy were “people
who, instead of standing on the world with both feet, balance
themselves on a single foot, like storks”, keeping in touch
with “the common base of the world only by what is strictly
This they did by tolerating the occasional “pederastic and
drug-addicted artists”. Dali would gain their support, he
decided, by being their crutch instead of these pitiful
“I had the original idea of not coming with empty hands, like
all the rest. I arrived, in fact, with my arms loaded with
crutches! One thing I realised immediately: It would take
quantities and quantities of crutches to give a semblance of
solidity …
“And I inaugurated the ‘pathetic crutch’ … to support the
monstrous development of certain atmospheric-cephalic
skulls … crutches to make architectural and durable the
fugitive pose of a choreographic leap, to pin the ephemeral
butterfly of the dancer with pins that would keep her poised
for eternity. Crutches, crutches, crutches, crutches.
“I even invented a tiny facial crutch of gold and rubies
[based on the one found in “Self-portrait with Fried Bacon”
— see this post]. Its bifurcated part was flexible and was
intended to hold up and fit the tip of the nose. The other end
was softly rounded and was designed to lean on the central
hollow above the upper lip. It was therefore a nose crutch,
an absolutely useless kind of object to appeal to the
snobbism of certain criminally elegant women, just as some
beings wear monocles without having any other need of
them than to feel the sacred tug of their exhibitionism
incrusted in the flesh of their own face.”
“My symbol of the crutch so adequately fitted and continues
to fit into the unconscious myths of our epoch that, far from
tiring us, this fetish has come to please everyone more and
more …
“When I had made my first attempt at keeping the
aristocracy standing upright by propping it with a thousand
crutches, I looked it in the face and said to it honestly, ‘Now I
am going to give you a terrible kick in the leg.’
“The aristocracy drew up a little more the leg that it kept
lifted, like a stork. ‘Go ahead,’ it answered, and gritted its
teeth to endure the pain stoically, without a cry.
Then, using all my might, I gave it a terrific kick right in the
“It did not budge. I had therefore propped it well. ‘Thank
you,’ it said to me. ‘Never fear,’ I answered as I left, kissing
its hand, ‘I’ll be back. With the pride of your one leg and the
crutches of my intelligence, you are stronger than the
revolution that is being prepared by the intellectuals, whom I
know intimately.
“‘You are old, and dead with fatigue, and you have fallen
from your high place, but the spot where your foot is
soldered to the earth is tradition. If you should happen to
die, I would come at once and place my own foot in that very
imprint of tradition which has been yours, and immediately I
would curl up my other leg like a stork. I am ready and able
to grow old in this attitude, without tiring.’”
“The Average, Fine and Invisible Harp”, 1934
1904-1929, 1970-1979, 1980-Forever, Spain, Dali Theatre-
Museum, Figueras, Gala, Pubol Castle, Meissonier
The Dali Theatre-Museum
The original theatre structure in which the museum now
stands was designed by architect Roca i Bros. It burned
down in 1939 and remained a gutted husk until Dali was
convinced to place his museum there.
The museum officially opened on September 28, 1974, and
the adjoining Torre Gorgot became part of it later,
rechristened Torre Galatea. This is where he lived in his old
age, following Gala’s death, and where the Gala-Salvador
Dali Foundation now has its offices.
In the courtyard garden that now spans the area where the
theatre stalls once perched is the installation entitled “Car-
naval”, which includes one of the Dalis’ Cadillacs, on which
Ernst Fuchs’ statue of Queen Esther rides; a marble bust by
François Girardon; a reproduction of Michelangelo’s “The
Slave”; and, as seen in the photo above, a boat that once
belonged to Gala and a column of car tires.
Nearby is the Rainy Taxi, and ringing the courtyard are
paintings by Evarist Vallès.
Also on the ground floor are the Sala de Peixateries — the
Fish Shop — which is where you can see “Soft Self-portrait
with Grilled Bacon” and “Portrait of Picasso”. Another room
with Dali’s drawings on view connects to the maestro’s
Few visitors realise they are walking directly about the tomb
as they cross the white marble slab in the middle of the red-
brick floor of the main hall. The crypt is behind a wall
decorated with a cross and the words “Salvador Dali
Domeneci, Pubol Markisi, 1904-1989″.
The theatre’s old stage, now crowned by a geodesic dome
designed by Emilio Pérez Piñero, is occupied by Dali’s
towering backdrop for the ballet “Labyrinth”, and to one side
is “Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea Which at
Twenty Metres Becomes the Portrait of Abraham Lincoln”.
To the left is the Sala del Tresor — the Treasure Room —
which has “Basket of Bread”, “Galarina”, “Atomic Leda” and
“The Spectre of Sex Appeal” on view. To the right is the
popular Mae West Room.
On the next floor up is the Sala Palau del Vent — the Wind
Palace Room. Here, where Dali exhibited his art in public for
the first time at age 14, is the Sistine-like ceiling fresco he
toiled on during the mid-1970s. He painted himself and Gala
as if ascending into Heaven, and from their torsos, cabinet
drawers open to pour out gold coins.
A post by “Eric” on the website Classical Values claims this
artwork, featured in an “official Dali calendar” one year, is
somehow related to the museum’s geodesic cupola, showing
16 figures arrayed as if part of a zodiac.
In the adjacent room is “Poetry of America”, and to the left
the Sala de les Joies — the Jewel Room — with 39 pieces Dali
designed between 1932 and 1970, along with the
preparatory drawings.
On the third floor Dali’s private art collection is shown,
including works by Meissonier, Fortuny, Modest Urgell,
Gerard Dou, El Greco, Marcel Duchamp and Bouguereau
along with some of his own, such as “Automatic Beginning of
a Portrait of Gala”.
On the second floor is the gallery of paintings by Antoni
Pichot, of the local family that meant so much to Dali.
Appointed by Dali the theatre-museum’s director, Antoni
Pichot was at his side daily the last nine years of his life,
watching him putter as best he could, listening always to the
music of “Tristan and Isolde”.
When Dali asked him to run his museum Pichot balked. “I’m
a painter, not a manager.”
“That’s exactly what I want,” Dali replied, “a manager who
doesn’t do anything! You’re perfect.”
Pichot remembered first meeting Dali in 1950. His father
took him along at the end of each summer to see what the
maestro had come up with, and that summer, he said it was
“The Last Supper”. Pichot can be forgiven for slipping on the
year: “The Sacrament of the Last Supper” was done in 1955.
The Pichot’s home in Figueras was levelled by a bomb during
the civil war, and they moved to San Sebastian. There,
Antoni’s drawing instructor was none other than Juan Nuñez
Fernández, who had taught Dali in Figueras 30 years before.
In 1972 Dali had a chance to see Pichot’s studio and
enigmatically pronounced his one of his works “the painting
of Opus Dei”. He carted it off, and the next day phoned to
ask Antoni to help him with the museum, where his art would
appear on permanent display.
Pichot paints the rocks of Cape Creus, seeing in each stone
people and stories that almost suggest a paranoiac-critical
Dali had once coached him: “Spread an armload of your
beach stones on a table and you get ‘The Battle of
Constantine’ by Raphael. Let’s see if you’re able to paint
that.” Antoni obliged, and Dali wrote the the introduction for
Pichot’s 1958 Barcelona exhibition where his own “The
Battle of Constantine” was featured.
When the rocks awaken from their long sleep, he said, the
noise is that of a ferocious battle.
The four “monsters” in the theatre-museum are pieces
Pichot created with Dali in 1975, made with rocks, boards,
tree limbs, parts of a whale skeleton and conch shells.
Above and right, Dali makes a grand show for the press
photographers on an October 1968 visit to the Spanish
Congress in Madrid.
He was in the capital to make a pitch to state minister
Sanchez-Arjona on behalf of the museum in Figueras.
The theatre-museum may well have remained a dream had
it not been for Figueras’ mayor in the early 1960s, Ramon
Guardiola. Dali unveiled plans for the museum at a reception
the town held in his honour on August 12, 1961. Guardiola
knew from the start what he was up against if he was to help
Dali make this dream a reality: Two prominent government
officials found excuses not to attend the reception.
The party was a success just the same, even if a fierce north
wind prevented a helicopter from hauling off the dead bull
from the “surrealist corrida” Dali had arranged. The town
council presented him with a medal it had minted for the
occasion, the Silver Leaf, and unveiled a plaque on the
house where he was born. And, amid the ruins of the old
municipal theatre, the artist revealed his grand scheme for a
museum of his own.
The fund-raising was now to begin, but Guardiola soon
learned that there was scant enthusiasm about donating
money to support the project. In terms of officialdom, only
the head of the Girona regional government and a few
prominent citizens were interested.
Just the same, Guardiola hired architect Ros de Ramis and
secured a small grant from the Information and Tourism
Ministry. Dali didn’t help matters by announcing that, based
on his belief that originals and reproductions would have the
same value in the future, he would fill the museum with
copies of his paintings.
He then asked that one of Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic
domes be erected over the museum courtyard. And when
work on the museum failed to begin, he threatened to move
the project to Paris or Perpignan instead.
Gala put in her two pesetas, telling Guardiola that if
construction hadn’t begun by the time she and Salvador
returned the following spring, she would “send six anarchists
from Paris to blow up what remains of the theatre”.
A close-up of the drenched mannequin inside the “Rainy
Taxi” at the museum.
For his anguish, belatedly, the town of Figueras
posthumously awarded the Silver Leaf to Guardiola in 1975,
in recognition of his role in the museum’s construction.
Guardiola had moved to Figueras in 1950, and five years
later met Dali at the local high school, which at the time was
the provisional home of the Museum of the Empordà. Dali
promised some of his artwork, though nothing ever came of
Guardiola tried again, this time asking Dali to provide
something for the title page of the museum magazine’s
December 1955 issue. This he did, and at the same time he
developed an admiration for Guardiola’s knowledge about
plant cultivation.
When, on his annual return to Port Lligat in the spring of
1956, Dali found that a winter chill had killed off most of the
olive trees in the area, he was heartsick. Olives meant a
great deal to him. He often called Gala “Oliveta”, and García
Lorca had referred to Dali’s “olive-coloured voice”. The olive
groves of Cadaques were to Dali like “some grey and
venerable hairs that crown the philosophical head of the
So he sought Guardiola’s advice, and an expert was found
who offered a formula with which to treat the ailing trees.
Dali prepared the potion himself, and within a few weeks
there were again signs of life. He packed some specimens in
a box and took them to the agricultural institute in Girona for
When the box was opened, a cloud of insects fell out. The
cause was found, and the remedy, and most of the olive
trees were saved.
Below, a photo of Dali evaluating the sketches of art
students who would visit the museum and consult him on a
weekly basis at times during the 1970s.
1904-1929, Spain, Cadaques, Family, Figueras, Religion &
the occult
In a festive mood
Every January 20, the feast day of Saint Sebastian, the more
pious citizens of Cadaques climb a steep path in a 90-minute
procession up Mount Pení to the Sant Sebastià Hermitage, an
old house perched in the midst of cork oak. The photo below
was posted by lluiscanyet on Panoramio.
I’ve read that it’s owned by Sebastian Guinness, a scion of
the Irish brewing family who owns a gallery in Dublin named
for him. For its opening in 2008 Guinness produced the
“lost” Warhol portrait of Farah Diba Pahlavi, the exiled
empress of Iran, claiming he’d bought from the Warhol
At any rate, the structure partway up 600-metre Mount Pení
is privately owned and opened to the public only on January
20. From the property you can pick out fragments of the
landscape that Dali painted in his youth. Just to the south is
the Pichot family’s summer house.
In earlier centuries the hermitage doubled as a talaia — a
look-out from which the villagers could watch for
approaching pirates, whose harbour raids were a frequent
Dali was 16 or 17 when he painted “Fiesta at the
Hermitage”, above, and with a detail below, on one side of a
piece of cardboard and “The Fair of the Holy Cross at
Figueras”, show a little further down, on the other.
The first depicts a celebration of feast day of Saint
Sebastian. Dali included himself chatting up a pair of young
women who are arm in arm.
Dali biographer Dawn Ades glimpsed his political interests in
“Fiesta at the Hermitage”, a “subtle sense of social division”
in the isolation of the gypsy in a headscarf in the centre.
The second side, the verso, has the annual fete of the title
on the feast day of the Holy Cross in May, for which Dali was
hired to paint posters. It’s chaotic, and Dali probably
deliberately tried to tone this down in his later, simpler, less
populous pictures of town fetes.
Here he was trying to capture what he termed the “living
bazaar, a great music box” that during the festivities
engulfed Plaça de la Palmera, where his family lived (Dali
was by then in Madrid). Footballers and bullfighters mingle
with gypsies and circus performers, bashful girls and
shameless boys.
Football was just catching on in Figueras, and two of Dali’s
schoolmates, Jaume Miravidles and Joan Maria Torres, played
for Unió Esportiva. He did portraits of both, and shown here
is that of Miravidles.
Both sides of the double painting of the festivals are finished
works, together now on view at the Dali-Theatre Museum,
but the “Hermitage” side was originally shown along with
seven other paintings Dali contributed to the Catalan
Students Association exhibition at the Dalmau Gallery in
Barcelona in late January 1922.
The dual painting was shown publicly again a few months
later, at the Exhibition of Empordà Artists in Figueras, though
it’s not known which side.
Critics found them derivative, but even if Dali winced at
perceived allusions to Nogués and other artists, he took
them overall as a compliment.
Dali’s sister Ana Maria described the church festivals in her
1951 book “All Year Round in Cadaqués”.
On the feast of Saint Sebastian, to this day, the parish priest
carries a baroque statue of the saint in procession up a hill,
through the olive groves, to the church, leading a band of
musicians and the faithful.
“Romeria — Pilgrimage”, from 1921
“The young girls, with red, blue, magenta and yellow
dresses, seem like flowers amidst the earthy greyness of the
old ladies’ dresses,” Ana Maria Dali wrote. “Just like an
allegory to the earth and the flowers born of it.
“Everybody carries bags, baskets full of meat, wine bottles,
baskets of sea urchins. The odd dog, of the sort that they call
around here ‘basket dogs’, because they have the job of
guarding the food bag while the master works, follows along
friskily and absent-mindedly. The very young couples hang
back a little behind the others, holding hands.”
At the top of the hill by the chapel a luncheon of seafood and
ribs is prepared as music for sardana dancing is played,
while inside the church “the Saint Sebastian songs are
Soon after his decommissioning from the army in 1927,
while summering in Cadaques with Garcia Lorca, Dali wrote
a poem titled “Saint Sebastián” that was published in L’Amic
de les Aris and the newspaper El Gallo.
The cleverly poetic prose sent a ripple through Catalan
literati. Dali concocted a metaphor between the arrow-
riddled saint finding armour in his faith and the artist
patiently letting his painting “ripen”, and elaborated on his
ideas about painting being more precise than photography.
The painting shown here is “Saint Sebastian” from 1982.
Lorca\'s \'Ode to Dali\'
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 See artists other minimalist surrealism post-modern website also, it is in a different mode,
       quieter than this, less \'political\', more nuanced,  at www.philliposullivan.co.nz

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