Who are they who OWN the Art World?

 Frankfurt School Operations as Perceived 'Christian' Nations Cultural Sabotage

 Is the New World Order a Zionist atheist plot?

Notes to Art World freedom for artists. First off is it rigged?

Do all artists have equal access or do some groups have an inside track from the beginning, which then gathers its own momentum of shows, attention and funding/money/patronage so that in the end... no matter how badly the start they really do appear 'better' because the others just do not ''appear" ie do the middle classes favour their own kind, or do Jews or some other group function like this: by dominating the scene , but by not absolutely controlling it do chosen groupings seem 'natural' and more gifted: but are they?  Are freemasons or Illuminatii in control?  What found if Jews say then consider the problem of racism in the arts and political life: we intergrated by selective readvantaging disadvantaged groups pROPORTIONATELY: we just do the same in the arts, Universities and so on. If whites lose a place or two at school to maintain proportionality and equality vis-à-vis whites then we can do it also for staff in Universities ... really stick it to the man. So that for professorial poitions, awards, grants funding and University or Arts jobs differently coloured/ blacks/whites and Jews all have their correct place PROPORTIONATE to their demographic numbers in a democratic society: anything else is racism. So if their are a disproportionate number of Jewish professors then more places must be opened at that level to others or racism is proven at that University and legal funding of that institute must cease until corrected.  This is a political correction we can all approve of: no one group is smarter than anyone else. 

;

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Phillip O'Sullivan Massey University Studio

Boy, Molested by older female 1954- 1985

Drawings and Collage on wall 1800mm x 1670mm

2013 $4500

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READ MY OWN ESSAY.....

 

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PRESENTATION 2012 Phillip O’Sullivan

 Eyes in the Heat, 1946. Oil and enamel on canvas, 54 x 43 inches (137.2 x 109.2 cm). The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation,Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice  76.2553.149. © 2012 The Pollock-Krasner Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

More Works By Jackson Pollock

 

Eyes in the Heat heralds the poured paintings Jackson Pollock initiated in the winter of 1946–47. It is part of Sounds in the Grass, a series of seven canvases that also includes Croaking Movement in the Peggy Guggenheim Collection. Pollock had moved to a house on Long Island in 1945, and early the next summer began using one of the bedrooms as a studio. Later in 1946 he arranged with Peggy Guggenheim to have a show at her Art of This Century gallery, to open in January of 1947; in preparation for this exhibition he worked with great intensity on Sounds in the Grass and the series Accabonac Creek.

 

 Visible effects of the move from New York City to the more rural environment of East Hampton were a lightening of palette and the introduction of themes alluding to nature. Although the light and flora and fauna of Long Island are evoked in a general sense in Eyes in the Heat, particularized figurative references are almost entirely submerged in the layers of impasto that build up the surface. Pollock no longer applies paint with a brush, but squeezes pigment onto the canvas directly from the tube, pushing and smearing it with blunt instruments to create a thick, textured crust. One’s gaze is carried along broad swaths of color that swoop, careen, double back, rise, and fall rhythmically over the entire canvas. The watchful eyes of creatures concealed in the paint appear here and there, in their proliferation mimicking the restless movement of the viewer’s eyes. His wife is Jewish. Does that have any significance? How many Jewish artists are there in New York: How many Jewish art dealers?

 
Phillip O'Sullivan
Drawings
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(Lucy Flint)

Who Rules The Art World

 

…………………………………………………………..

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I shall talk on 'Who Rules The Artworld' framed as a discussion around questions of patronage and the economics of Art Foundations as Institutions.

 

I hope to cover a few small extra matters arising from the first Essay.

Focussing on the Spiral Jetty and the Dia Art Foundation

My text will spring forth from the two small Marxist texts in the readings (Marx. Engels)

Either of these Images will Do

..-5 is 'the twenty year high & dry' period, illustrated

...-7 are the hands of the original contracter, twenty or so years later, over the original drawing that Robert Smithson gave him to b

 

Phillip

ert Smithson was an American artist famous for his land art. 

Born: January 2, 1938, New Jersey

Died: July 20, 1973, New Mexico

Education: Art Students League of New York

Period: Land art

Artwork: Spiral Jetty, Mirror Stratum, Corner Mirror with Coral, More

Structures: Spiral Jetty

Essays and interviews can be found in the book: 

 Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, edited by Jack Flam, Published 

 by University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California; 

 

 University of California Press,Ltd., London, England, 1996

 

SELECTED WRITINGS BY ROBERT SMITHSON

 

The Eliminator, 1964

A Short Description of Two Mirrored Crystal Structures, 1965

Entropy And The New Monuments, 1966

The Crystal Land, Harper's Bazaar, May 1966

Language to be Looked at and/or Things to be Read, Press Release for

Language show at the Virginia Dwan Gallery, New York, (1967)

Some Void Thoughts On Museums, Arts Magazine, February 1967

Minus Twelve, Minimal Art, edited by Gregory Battcock, 1968

A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites, 1968

Cultural Confinement, Artforum, 1972

 

  

 

Honey Moon Machine

1964

Untitled 

 1964-65

Untitled, Mirrored Surfaces

 1965 

 

   

  

 Enantiomorphic Chambers

1965

Quick Millions

 1965

Untitled 

 1965 

 

   

  

 

Plunge

 1966

Alogon #2

 1966

Terminal 

 1966 

 

    

  

 

Mirror Stratum

 1966

Aerial Map-Proposal for Dallas - Fort Worth Regional Airport

 1967

Untitled 

 1967 

 

    

  

 

A Nonsite, Pine Barrens, New Jersey,

winter 1968

A Nonsite, Franklin, New Jersey

 summer, 1968

Gravel Mirror with Cracks and Dust

 1968 

 

    

 

 

 

 Red Sandstone Corner Piece

 1968

Untitled

(Mica and Glass)

 1968-69Eight-Part Piece

(Cayuga Salt Mine Project)

 1969 

 

    

  

 

 

 

Chalk and Mirror Displacement

1969

Mirror with Crushed Shells

 1969

 Nonsite - Essen Soil and Mirrors

 1969 

 

    

  

 Leaning Mirror

 1969Dead Tree

 1969Mirrors and Shelly Sand

 1970 

  

  

 

Pierced Spiral

 1973

Floating Island to Travel Around Manhattan Island

1970/2005  

 

 

The capitalistic mode of production moves in these two forms of the antagonism immanent to it from its very origin. It is never able to get out of that "vicious circle" which Fourier had already discovered. What Fourier could not, indeed, see in his time is that this circle is gradually narrowing; that the movement becomes more and more a spiral, and must come to an end, like the movement of planets, by collision with the centre. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/ch03.htm (5 of 13) [23/08/2000 17:41:19] Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (Chpt. 3) Written: Between January and March of 1880

Source: Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume 3, p. 95 -151

Publisher: Progress Publishers, 1970

First Published: March, April, and May issues of Revue Socialiste in 1880

Translated: from the French by Paul Lafargue in 1892 (authorised by Engels) ENGELS 1880

…..........................................................................................

Practitioners and land artists like Smithson saw their work as

part of a broader critique of art’s commodification by the commercial

gallery system (Hopkins 2000: 172). There was also an ecological

angle to these interventions. It may seem strange in our environmentally

more conscious times that a carbon-hungry engineering

project like Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, 1970 – a 1,500ft sandstone

sculpture in Utah’s Great Lakes – could sustain such readings. But

Smithson’s work reflected a fascination with the idea of ‘entropy’ –

the gradual slowing down and eventual stasis of all natural

phenomena. At a time when corporations and mainstream political

interests were scarcely conscious of ecological balance, Smithson

was exploring an ultimately finite natural environment as the product

of geology and time (http://www. robertsmithson.com). Art History The basics

Grant Pooke and Di ana Newa l l Routledge New York 2008

 

Smithson, Robert (1938–73) Spiral Jetty

(1970), 181

…...........................................................................................................

 Spiral Jetty 1970 Death 1973 Writings /Film 1972?

PLAN Debate Discussion Questions

Explore possible connections and relations horizontal/ across artworld

Vertical…from viewer/consumer patron/critic exhibitor/fundor foundation  etc capitalism/system tax breaks

3 Tangential spirals intersecting along , not a point, but a spread out clustering moment transcending its various integuments.  The social, political or materialist conditions of the art production.  Texts, Artist and Capitalism as a system of errors. 

The capitalistic mode of production moves in these two forms of the antagonism immanent to it from its very origin. It is never able to get out of that "vicious circle" which Fourier had already discovered. What Fourier could not, indeed, see in his time is that this circle is gradually narrowing; that the movement becomes more and more a spiral, and must come to an end, like the movement of planets, by collision with the centre.

 
Phillip O'Sullivan
Drawings
200 x 290mm
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http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/ch03.htm (5 of 13) [23/08/2000 17:41:19] Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (Chpt. 3) Written: Between January and March of 1880

 

Source: Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume 3, p. 95 -151

 

Publisher: Progress Publishers, 1970

 

First Published: March, April, and May issues of Revue Socialiste in 1880

 

The power of Texts.

 

One the transcendental move through career art history: with the Dia art  foundation acting as patron, with the suitable attitude gratitude.  Rosalind Krauss article October 1979 highlights a number of Dia Art foundation artists. Advancing the reputational careers of all of them. How texts ensure an artistic heritage.  Robert Smithson as Writer and thinker: written about

 

 

Artist as Commodity.

Two the dance of networks, with the artist as Arts Foundation player and played. 

Dia Arts Foundation Website How mid career interactions, picking up on likely artists ensures the maximum return for Dia Arts foundation tax break funding.

Beacon Dia Chelsea funding notes (O'Sullivan: 2012) Money determines taste of success. 

Marleborough Galleries 'money lying in state' Robert Hughes?Stipend, project funding and the conscience of the artists consciousness. No need for Heroes.

 

 
Phillip O'Sullivan
Drawings
200 x 290mm
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Materialism

Thirdly How great art heritage world art plays out on the global stage and  how capitalism and commodity futures ensure the creative destruction of ambitious art: the only good artist is a dead artist. Schumpeters view of how capitalism works in class structures.  

Imperialism and Class Schumpeter 1936Blasted environments and an apologia for such a destructive/tragic romance. Robert Smithsons penchant for industrial wastelands: his ambivalent attitude to them. The oil connection and lease debacle. 

Dia Art Foundation Lease lapse. 25 year lease lapses ($250) with Utah Lands and resources Council body.Oil money and Dia Art foundation Art patronage. 

Worlds largest Oil Exploration Heiress married to Dia Art Foundation founder dealer Fre/HeinrichOily strings attached. Classic 'watery image' presentation, media mediation conveyed as a consumer consciousness to us discussed.

Discussion of image. Hands of 'production' or dried up global climate change as ended 1998. Materialism coopts reality for its own image and brand of consciousness. Alienation and cultural estrangement. 1 percenter Naomi Klein.

 
Phillip O'Sullivan
Drawings
200 x 290mm
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….................................................................................................................

NOTES  Hal Fosters book includes reprint of Krauss article

2

Things  artworks themselves/provenance/auctions/openings/networks/advertising etc

Texts do discourse/buzz/texts/catalogues/essays/articles/magazines/

Works themselves only as good as your last exhibition.

Money does

Patrons funding Government

Private

Foundations

Museums

Artists/critics/theorists/ 

 

People

Critics/artists/curators/

 

FOUNDATIONS DIA ART Rosalind Krauss/ Robertsmithson /Spiral Jetty… Pearl Oil Exploration Utah State Lands/   25 year lease lapsed 

KRAUSS details… dia art foundation

ROBERT SMITHSON details

Dia Art Foundation Beacon NY state Hudson River Valley

Chelsea Art Dia Chelsea  Dan Flavin/ Bill Culbert

Oil Company/Lease/ Utah  State/Tax breaks  Essay… quote

Spiral Jetty  25 year lease/20 year drought operates 1979 article date for work

Highest level…fraught freighted with conspiracy solution Leninist one/NEP.. tsaristNEED ‘them’ to run things/ Naomi Klein footnote virtual wealth in play 1percent… cAPITALISM Usury/accumulation compound interest muslim demographics. Implicated.The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism

 

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………………………………………………………………….

 

Word Count  3003/zero  3081/zero 3855/zero  4213/zero  8252/zero   8438/zero 8445/zero

8608/150 8622/ 170  8677/220 8713/260  8941/480 8991/530 words

…………………………………………………………….

Book Review

 

Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties. By Suzaan Boettger. 316 pp. incl. 14 col. pis. + 97 b. & w. ills. (Uni versity of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 2002), $50/^35. ISBN 0-520-22108-7. Reviewed by LYNNE COOKE Dia Art Foundation, New York SUZAAN BOETTGER TAKES her Subject Earthworks as an art form of the 1960s, whereas for most of its principal exponents and analysts the momentum lasted well into the 1970s, and thus much beyond the untimely death of its most celebrated prac titioner, Robert Smithson, in 1973. For Boettger, 'the debut of the genre' was in October 1968, with the opening of the Earthworks show at the Dwan Gallery, New York (p.i); and chapter 7 in her study is entided '1969: Endings and Dispersals'. Yet most of the major works in this vein were only begun (if not always realised) in the 1970s, notably Smithson's Amarillo ramp (! 973-74); Michael Heizer's City project, begun in 1972 and just now nearing com pletion; Walter De Maria's Lightning field in New Mexico, sketched in 1974 but com pleted in 1977; James TurrelTs Roden Crater project, first mooted c.1974 and, again, only now approaching completion; Nancy Holt's Sun tunnels (1973?76); Charles Ross's Star axis (1971 and ongoing). Robert Morris's Grand Rapids project (1973?74), the first of many land reclamation art works in the US that were paid for with public

 

known under the rubric of Environmental Art which, arguably, is the most enduring legacy of these Earthworks to date. While few of the protagonists saw their roles as part of a movement per se, nonethe less Earthworks, or Land Art, as it is some times known, was identified and launched via several exhibitions, some organised by the participants themselves. The first of these, the historic Earthworks show in October 1968, featured some twelve artists, including Sol Le Witt, Carl Andre, Claes Oldenburg and Morris, not generally asso ciated with the genre, as well as Heizer, De Maria and Smithson, who are customar ily recognised as its leading exponents. Smithson was a prime mover in this show together with the gallerist Virginia Dwan who, shortly after, partially financed the construction of Heizer's Double negative (1969-70), and De Maria's test piece for the Lightning field (1973-74), in addition to Smithson's Spiral jetty (1970). A second show, entided Earth Art, staged in early 1969 at the Andrew Dickson White Muse um of Art in Ithaca NY, included a roster of Europeans alongside their American peers. Boettger's avowed enterprise, reflected in the book's subtide, is to focus on the early years in the United States during which Smithson played a seminal role as theorist, advocate and instigator. It is never stated whether this focus was determined in part by the fact that she had access to records and archives from the Smithson estate

part by the fact that she had access to records and archives from the Smithson estate but no co-operation from either Heizer or De Maria, who, exceptionally, even refused permission for their works to be illustrated in this book. While much controversy still surrounds issues of priority in this field (and gready preoccupies Boettger who speaks of being referee to the claims of its principals; p.236), most art historians today prioritise broader and more substantive issues, not least the relationship of this multifaceted mode to other contemporaneous vanguard practices, some of which Rosalind Krauss memorably defined as 'sculpture in the expanded field', in an important essay of 1979, not referred to here. (Nor is Craig Owens's provocative counter-argument Earthwords (1979), which relates this phe nomenon less to environmental/architec tural modalities than to a more encom passing language-based discursive field, as addressed in his text.) That Boettger's grasp of recent scholarship is tenuous may be gauged from her astonishing claim that Benjamin Buchloh has promoted Minimal ism as a form of institutional critique (p.209). More substantively, given the benefit of over three decades' hindsight, the now mature uvres of these artists, and a wealth of extensive research, it is arguable whether Land Art is best treated as a move ment analogous to those that chart the his tory of vanguard Modernist art or, rather, as a brief, strategic confluence of radical artis tic trajectories representing what ultimately proved to be different aesthetic persuasions. In this respect, it is fundamentally more

 

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Burlington Magazine  October 2003

Guggenheim

Museum, New York, the famous rotunda spiralled up and away

from sight, into a chaste light, whiter than usual.

 

Spiral of the GUGGENHEIM

…………………………………………………………………………………

. "Theweleit and Spiegelman: Of Men and Mice." Remaking History. Ed. Barbara Kruger and Phil Mariani. Dia Art Foundation Discussions in Contemporary Culture 4. Seattle: Bay, 1989. 151-72.

 

 "We Were Talking Jewish": Art Spiegelman's "Maus" as "Holocaust" ProductionAuthor(s): Michael Rothberg and Art SpiegelmanReviewed work(s):Source: Contemporary Literature, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Winter, 1994), pp. 661-687Published

 

Bibliography

1. The key references are Craig Owens' essays on Robert Smithson: "Earthwords," October 10 (Fall 1979): 121-130; and "The Allegorical Impulse: Towards a Theory of Postmodernism," October 13 (Summer 1980): 49-80. 2. Lynne Cooke and Karen Kelly, eds., Robert Smithson: Spiral Jetty: True Fictions, False Realities (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press; New York: Dia Art Foundation, 2005); Ann Morris Reynolds, Robert Smithson: Learning from New Jersey and Elsewhere (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003); Eugenie Tsai et al., Robert Smithson (Berke ley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2004); Ron Graziani, Robert Smithson and the American Landscape (New York: Cambridge Univer sity Press, 2004). 3. Cooke and Kelly, Spiral Jetty. 4. Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990), p. 7. 5. Jacques Derrida, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences," in Writing and Difference, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago, 111.: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 292. 29

References

 

Footnotes

 

Consciousness UNIVERSAL Symbol

consistency is far better

explained by the fact that people of all ages and cultures have

similar brains, and those brains react in similar ways to stress, fear,

lack of oxygen, or the many other triggers for NDEs.

All these triggers can cause the release of pleasure-inducing

endorphins, and can set off random neural activity in many parts of

the brain. The effects of this random activity depend on the

location: activity in visual cortex produces tunnels, spirals, and

lights (as do hallucinogenic drugs that have similar neural effects);

activity in the temporal lobe induces body image changes and

OBEs, and can release floods of memories; and activity in other

places can give rise to visions of many kinds, depending on the

person’s expectation, prior state of mind, and cultural beliefs. There

is no doubt that many people really are changed by having an NDE, Near Death Experience ConsciousnessSusan Blackmore (2005)

CONSCIOUSNESS

A Very Short Introduction

pg111

"About Dia: Beacon," Dia Art Foundation, accessed March 20,2012,

http://www.diaart.org/siteslpage/11I003.

 

The Dia Art Foundation provided the initial financing for 7000 Oaks in Kassel. Joseph Beuys

 

On behalf of the board and staff of Dia Art Foundation, I am writing to adamantly oppose

Pearl Montana Exploration & Production's application to drill exploratory boreholes in the

North Arm of the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

'The North Arm is home to Robert Smithson's artwork, Spiral Jetty (1 970), one of the

most widely recognized and cherished American sculptures of the late twentieth century,

and perhaps the most iconic example of Land Art in the world. Dia acquired the Spiral

Jetty as a gift from the artist's Estate in 1999 and today oversees its long-term

preservation, including the protection of the surrounding environment. Smithson's

sculpture is made of basalt rocks and earth taken from the site and formed into a

massive 1500-foot-long coil that spirals into the Great Salt Lake. The expansive natural

setting is integral to the artwork, providing an essential frame for experiencing

Smithson's project.

Smithson's pioneering sculpture-made with bulldozers and earth-occupies an

important place in art history, and has inspired both scholarly study and younger

generations of artists. Visitors come from around the world to Rozel Point in Box Elder

County to experience the Spiral Jetty which was conceived in relation to the specific

geology and topology of its unique site. The fragile balance of earth, salt lake, and local

flora and fauna, symbolized in the form and structure of the artwork, must be maintained

to preserve the experience of the Spiral Jetty in this unique landscape.

Dia strenuously objects to the proposed drilling which will occur approximately 4 miles

away from the Jetty. The drilling itself, and potential subsequent oil extraction, will

disrupt the viewshed and the area's isolated character, and will degrade the natural

environment of the lake by introducing barges with large-scale drilling equipment.

Moreover, construction and operation will introduce toxins and chemicals to the delicate

saline water and wetlands that surround the lake. In the case of a toxic spill, the

proposed operation would cause irreparable damage to the lake environment and

threaten the physical integrity of Smithson's extraordinary sculpture. Additionally, we are

concerned about increased traffic and heavy transport on the rural road that leads to the

Spiral Jetty through Golden Spike National Monument, and the potential for noise

pollution from drilling and operations.

As stewards of the Spiral Jetty, Dia believes the State must seriously consider the

detrimental effects that drilling will have on Robert Smithson's internationally acclaimed

artwork. We urge you to deny the filing submitted by Pearl Montana Exploration &

Dia Art Foundation

535 West 22nd Street New York New York 1001 1 .

21 2 989 5566 Fax 21 2 989 4055 www.diaartorg

Production, and any future ,filings in the North Arm of Great Salt Lake that similarly

constitute a threat to the artwork and the surrounding environment. Should you have any

questions regarding Dia's position, please feel free to contact directly at 212.293.5505 or

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., and thank you for consideration of our request.

Sincerely, I

Jeffrey Weiss

Director

cc: The Honorable Jon Huntsman, Jr., Governor of Utah

The Honorable Robert F. Bennett, United States Senate

The Honorable Senator Orrin G. Hatch, United States Senate

The Honorable Rob Bishop, United States House of Representatives

The Honorable Peter C. Knudson, Utah State Senate

The Honorable Ronda Menlove, Utah House of Representatives

 

What are your organizations interest and activities on Great Salt Lake?

Dia Art Foundation is the custodian of artist Robert Smithson’s iconic work of Land Art,

Spiral Jetty, which was created in 1970 on Rozel Point on the Great Salt Lake in Box

Elder County, Utah. Using black basalt rocks and earth from the site, the artist created a

coil 1500 feet long and 15 feet wide that stretches out counterclockwise into the

translucent red water. Spiral Jetty was acquired by Dia Art Foundation as a gift from the

Estate of the artist in 1999.

Smithson’s sculpture is unique throughout the world, and is an icon of late 20 th century

sculpture. It has been widely studied by artists and art historians alike, as well as drawing

the attention of a diverse general audience. Spiral Jetty is considered among the most

influential artworks of the past hundred years, and Dia is interested in preserving it in

perpetuity for the benefit of visitors from Utah, from across the United States, and from

around the globe.

2. What permits or approvals do you need and from whom?

Dia holds a “Special Use Lease No. 889 for the Spiral Jetty, an artistic design located in

the northeast portion of the Great Salt Lake.” This special use lease expires 02/28/11 at

which point Dia plans to renew its application. If possible, Dia would like to extend the

lease in perpetuity.

3. What pressures on the lake affect your organization?

Dia is concerned about commercial development on the Great Salt Lake in the area

immediately surrounding Spiral Jetty because of the detrimental impact it could have on

the solitary environment that defines Rozel Point. For Smithson and for visitors alike, a

compelling quality of Spiral Jetty is experiencing the artwork amidst the remoteness of

its site. The sculpture is directly integrated into the landscape, and is inseparable from the

isolated natural environment which surrounds it.

Commercial activity, such as oil extraction, could negatively impact this worldrenowned

cultural site by introducing visual disruptions, noise, and toxic waste. Such activity could

disrupt the delicate ecosystem of the lake and thus, the experience of the artwork, and

could jeopardize the structural integrity of the sculpture itself.

4. Are there opportunities for improvement with regards to agency management or

impacts to the resource?

Dia hopes to work with the Utah Department of Natural Resources and others in the State

to create a buffer zone around Spiral Jetty that will protect this irreplacable artwork as a

vital cultural resource.

KLEE

 

The section ‘Colour Theory – Klee’ has close associations with the section on

musical analogy, which includes sub-sections ‘Parallels With Shape’ and ‘Musical

And Visual Tone’ as well as an interpretation of the painting Ancient

Sound/Harmony (Alter Klang, 1925, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel).11 In

‘Parallels with Shape’, for example, having taken Klee’s Notebooks as a point of

reference, the way that certain abstract forms can suggest noises or sounds is

demonstrated. For example, a jagged shape suggests the sound of glass breaking, a

spiral shape suggests an equivalent whirring sound. Animating Art History 27 pg

Digital Art History

A Subject in Transition

Computers and the History of Art Volume One

Edited by

Anna Bentkowska-Kafel, Trish Cashen and Hazel Gardiner

First Published in the UK in 2005 by

Intellect Books, PO Box 862, Bristol BS99 1DE, UK

First Published in the USA in 2005 by

 

 

 

Blinky Palermo: Retrospective 1964–1977 is organized by Dia Art Foundation and the Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College and is curated by Lynne Cooke.

The national tour of Blinky Palermo: Retrospective 1964–1977 is made possible by GUCCI. Additional tour support is provided by The Andy Warhol Foundation for the

Visual Arts, the Brown Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts, and Glenstone. Funding for the publication is provided by Sotheby’s, the Marx Family Advised Fund

at Aspen Community Foundation, and The Andrew J. and Christine C. Hall Foundation.

 

 

Blinky Palermo: Retrospective 1964–1977 is organized by Dia Art Foundation and the Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College and is curated by Lynne Cooke.

TBlinky Palermo: Retrospective 1964–1977 is organized by Dia Art Foundation and the Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College and is curated by Lynne Cooke.

The national tour of Blinky Palermo: Retrospective 1964–1977 is made possible by GUCCI. Additional tour support is provided by The Andy Warhol Foundation for the

Visual Arts, the Brown Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts, and Glenstone. Funding for the publication is provided by Sotheby’s, the Marx Family Advised Fund

at Aspen Community Foundation, and The Andrew J. and Christine C. Hall Foundation.

 

Dia Art Foundation

535 West 22nd Street New York New York 10011

212 989 5566 Fax 212 989 4055 www.diaart.org

………………………………………………………………..

Immanuel Kant naively thought that to contemplate such chains

of responsibility is to initiate an infinite regress, but the folk

theorem shows that the chains of responsibility can be bent back

on each other. With only a finite number of players, these chains of

responsibility are necessarily closed in a manner that Kant failed

to consider. Alice obeys the king because she fears Bob will

otherwise punish her. Bob would obey the order to punish Alice

because he fears that Carol will otherwise punish him. Carol

would obey the order to punish Bob because she fears that Alice

will otherwise punish her.

At first sight, such a spiral of self-confirming beliefs seems too

fragile to support anything solid. It is true that the beliefs go

round in a circle, but the folk theorem shows that their fragility is

an illusion, since the behaviour generated by the beliefs holds

together as a subgame-perfect equilibrium. Game Theory pg 84

Game theory Ken Binmore OUP (2007)

 

Kobert Smithson. Spiral Jetty. 1969-70.

 

……………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

In the work of the best-known among media

historians, Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980), the narrative of

evolution has an interestingly spiral dimension, returning

in heightened form to its oral origin in the figure of the

electronic “global village” (pp. 166–167). A noted Joyce

scholar, McLuhan may have derived the spiral form of history

from Joyce’s source, Giambattista Vico (1688–1744).

Be that as it may, he shares with other teleological media historians

a mystical belief in eternal return or in millenarian

thought that responds to a heartfelt longing for historical

symmetry.

McLuhan’s spiral might be seen as syncretic, even atavistic History of Media Entry

 

new dictionary of the history of ideas

maryanne cline horowitz, editor in chief

volume 1

Abolitionism to Common Sense

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas

Maryanne Cline Horowitz, Editor in Chief

©2005 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson

 

 

Similarly, the possible combination of landscape and not-landscape

began to be explored in the late 1960s. The term marked sites is used to

identify work like Smithson's Spiral Jetty (1970) and Heizer's Double

Negative (1969), as it also describes some of the work in the '70s by Serra,

Morris, Carl Andre, Dennis Oppenheim, Nancy Holt, George Trakis, and

many others. But in addition to actual physical manipulations of sites, this

term also refers to other forms of marking. These might operate through the

application of impermanent marks Heizer's Depressions, Oppenheim's

Time Lines, or De Maria's Mile Long Drawing, for example or through

the use of photography. Smithson's Mirror Displacements in the Yucatan

were probably the first widely known instances of this, but since then the

work of Richard Long and Hamish Fulton has focused on the photographic

experience of marking. Christo's Running Fence might be said to be an

impermanent, photographic, and political instance of marking a site.

The first artists to explore the possibilities of architecture plus notarchitecture

were Robert Irwin, Sol LeWitt, Bruce Nauman, Richard Serra,

and Christo. In every case of these axiomatic structures, there is some kind

of intervention into the real space of architecture, sometimes through partial

Sculpture in the Expanded Field 41in

Copyright © 1983 by Bay Press

All rights reserved

Printed in the United States of America

First edition published in 1983

Fifth Printing 1987

Bay Press

914 Alaskan Way

Seattle, WA 98104

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Main entry under title:

The Anti-aesthetic.

I. Modernism (Aesthetics) - Addresses, essays, lectures.

2. Civilization, Modern - 1950- Addresses, essays , lectures. Hal Foster

 

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

Prosthetic Gods Torn Screens 299

 

This dialectic is concentrated in Spiral Jetty (1970), his celebrated earthwork

in the Great Salt Lake, and even more so in the film of its construction; this

film opens onto a Medusan real more directly than any postwar work I know (fig.

7.16). From its initial sequence of sunbursts to its meditation on dinosaurs in a

natural history museum and on legends of a whirlpool that once connected the

Salt Lake to the Pacific, from the actual siting, staking, and making of the jetty at

Rozel Point to its final traversing by Smithson, the film spirals vertiginously, both

visually and thematically (there is also Medusan imagery, more or less incidental,

of eyes, snakes, and “stony matrices” along the way). This optical vertigo is extreme

in the final frames, filmed from a helicopter. These shots begin slow and

steady on the site, then seem to speed up as the helicopter swoops in. As it does

so, Smithson drones, “North—Mud, salt crystals, rocks, water. North by East—

Mud, salt crystals, rocks, water . . . ,” in a voiceover repeated for all points of the

compass. As the jetty spirals more tightly, the camera turns more rapidly, and we

lose our orientation—a vertigo deepened by the banking of the helicopter.

Gradually the camera pulls back, and we see the work as a distinct image once

more, but only long enough so that this “gestalt form”might then be withdrawn,

as the helicopter flies in low again to circle the site tightly. At this point the camera

zooms in on the end of the jetty (which is also, in a sense, its center, its eye),

and the film cuts to images of salt crystals formed on its rocks (spirals exist at all

scales in this film).

Next we see Smithson from the helicopter as he walks, runs, and stumbles

toward the tip of the jetty. Sunlight glares from the water more brilliantly than

any sardine can, as Smithson speaks of a blinding gaze into the sun (he also recites

the symptoms of sunstroke, including “delirium”). Dazzling light burns

through the screen, and blind spots seem to be everywhere—on the surface of

the lake, in the emulsion of the film, on the retina of the viewer. The critical literature

on Smithson often discusses his decentering of the art object and his

transgressing of the institutional frame. Not so remarked is that, here at least, he

also evokes a burning-through of the gaze and a tearing of the image screen

through an opening to light that is “pulsatile, dazzling and spread out.” (The sheer

 

© 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

 

Foster, Hal.

Prosthetic gods / Hal Foster.

p. cm.

“An October book.”

Includes index.

ISBN 0-262-06242-9 (alk. paper)

1. Modernism (Art) 2. Modernism (Aesthetics) 3. Psychoanalysis and art. 4. Creation

 

7.16. Robert Smithson, film stills from Spiral Jetty, 1970. Gelatin silver prints. Panel C: 251⁄4 431⁄2 in. Collection

of Museet for Samtidskunst, Oslo. c Estate of Robert Smithson/Licensed by VAGA, New York, New York.

Courtesy James Cohan Gallery, New York.

 

In his 1972 text on Spiral Jetty, Smithson describes its landscape in Medusan

terms, but here the gaze of the world dissolves as much as it petrifies. Amid

hills like “melting solids” and slopes like “viscous masses of perception,” the lake

“resembles an impassive faint violet sheet held captive in a stony matrix, upon

which the sun poured down its crushing light.”73 The religious epigraph of the

essay, which points to the red algae in the lake as well as the red filter that tints

much of the film, also evokes a torn screen:“Red is the most joyful and dreadful

thing in the physical universe; it is the fiercest note, it is the highest light, it is the

place where the walls of this world of ours wear the thinnest and something beyond

burns through.”74 Later in the text Smithson expands on this red:

Chemically speaking, our blood is analogous in composition to the

primordial seas. Following the spiral steps we return to our origins,

back to some pulpy protoplasm, a floating eye adrift in an antediluvian

ocean. On the slopes of Rozel Point I closed my eyes, and the

sun burned crimson through the lids. I opened them and the Great

Salt Lake was bleeding scarlet streaks. My sight was saturated by the

color of red algae circulating in the heart of the lake, pumping into

ruby currents; no, they were veins and arteries sucking up the obscure

sediments. My eyes became combustion chambers churning

orbs of blood blazing by the light of the sun. All was enveloped in

a flaming chromosphere; I thought of Jackson Pollock’s Eyes in the

Heat. Swirling within the incandescence of solar energy were sprays

of blood.75

Torn Screens

301  prostheic Gods

 

 

FILM above…………………………………………………..

Essays and interviews can be found in the book: 

 Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, edited by Jack Flam, Published 

 by University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California; 

 

 University of California Press,Ltd., London, England, 1996

 

QUOTES

 

Robert Smithson in "The Spiral Jetty" moves into the area of experimental cinema. Is the result anecdotal, fantasy, dream? Is it phenomenonological, existential, or pure nar-rative? The scales used are called centers at one time, edges at another. Is it a spiraling daydream or a subconscious happening? A dialectic of "site" and "nonsite" suggests rather than explains. Enhancement of sense may not be enrichment of value.

 The Arts and the Environment by Georgy KepesReview by: William Sener RuskArt Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Spring, 1976), p. 294Published by: College Art AssociationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/775958 .Accessed: 24/09/2012 03:14Your

 

In response to large-scale earthworks like Heizer 's Double Negative or Smithson's Spiral Jetty, more ecological approaches to making land art would gain steam in the later 1970s. Boettger acknowledges the deliberate failure of earthworks to connect with the early years of the environmental movement fol lowing the significant publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1962: "These artists unintentionally enacted society's ambiva lence about the environment?both the attraction to the earth as a primeval source of replenishment and a belief in human kind's right of dominion over it?in this early stage of public awareness of environ mental holism" (208). Boettger's hindsight is seemingly informed by the ecological art

Landed

Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties by Suzaan Boettger; Artists, Land,  

Natureby Mel Gooding; William FurlongReview by: Maura CoughlinArt Journal, Vol. 64, No. 2  

(Summer, 2005), pp. 105-109Published by: College Art AssociationStable URL:  

http://www.jstor.org/stable/20068389 .Accessed: 24/09/2012 02:33Your

 

……………………………………………………………………

 

United Press International

April 20, 2008

Entertainment

Spiral Jetty threatened by oil project

SALT LAKE CITY, April 20 (UPI) -- Utah's Spiral Jetty land sculpture is at risk of being

altered by a growing search for oil in the region, a foundation official says.

Dia Art Foundation Deputy Director Laura Raicovich, whose group owns the large

spiraling sculpture, said artist Robert Smithson's creation could be irrevocably altered if

plans are approved to search for oil beneath the Great Salt Lake, the Los Angeles

Times reported Sunday.

"The relationship between the work of art and the surrounding landscape is critical,"

Raicovich said of the famed artwork.

"This is an internationally recognized work of art, which not just the people of Utah but

everyone should want to maintain."

Keith C. Hill, president of Pearl Exploration and Production, the company behind the

potential oil exploration threatening the Spiral Jetty, said he has been besieged by

comments about the plan.

"Not one," he said, "has been supportive."

The Times said the plan is being reviewed by state officials, who said they will not

approve the effort until they learn how Pearl would transport any oil it finds at the site.

 

…………………………………………………………………………

 

Earthworks completed in the late i96os and early I970s began to develop and respond to the particular qualities of site, incorporating that information into the sculpture. They moved outside the usual context of the art world, often into the vast spaces of the West. Though the images of these works (such as Robert Smithson's ((Spiral Jetty>>) were often appealing to a larger audience, the pieces were not within the public domain. They were privately sponsored works on private land, not readily accessible. The artists still maintained the sensibility, if not the scale, of the studio;

Mary Miss

 On a Redefinition of Public SculptureAuthor(s): Mary MissReviewed work(s):Source: Perspecta, Vol. 21 (1984), pp. 52-69Published by: The MIT Press on behalf of Perspecta.Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1567080 .Accessed: 24/09/2012 02:52Your

 

 

Addressing Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty and the Partially Buried Woodshed, Craig Owens

has made an important connection between melancholia and the redemptive logic of site

specificity in “The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism,” October 12

(Spring 1980): 67–86.

 

Sculpture in the Expanded Field

Rosalind Krauss

October, Vol. 8. (Spring, 1979), pp. 30-44.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=O162-2870%218 97921%298%3C30%3ASITEF%3E2.O.C0%3B2-Y

details in reader

Schumpeter Antonio

Marx details in reader

Engels  details in reader

Dia details in reader

Robert Smithson biblio details in reader

My own essay… Tax info.

………………………………………………………………..

 

The Ruling Class and the Ruling Pleas ^.

 

^. . (with Engels) (1845- 6)    The ideas of the ruling class are In every epoch the ruling ideas: i.e.^r the class which is the ruling merit force of society is at the same time its

 

                         ~ material pro~uction at its disposal, consequently also controls the means of mental production so that the ideas of those who lack the means of menial pro~uction are on the whole subject to it. The ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of dominant mate id relations, the ~om~ant material relators grasped as ideas; hence of the relations which malce the one class the ruling one, therefore, the ideas of its dominance. The in~iviclua~s composing the ruling class possess among other things consciousness, and therefore think. Insofar, therefore, as they rule as a class and determine the extent and compass of an historical epoch, it is selfevi~en~ that they do this in its whole range, hence among other things rule also as thinkers, as producers of ideas, and regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age: thus their ideas are the ruling ideas of the epoch. For instance, in an age and in a country where royal power, aristocracy and bourgeoisie are contending for domination and where, therefore, domination is sharecrop the doctrine of the separation of powers proves to be the dominant idea and is expressed as art '^teternal laws ~

ruling inteZZect^lcal force. The class which has the means of:

AH If ~ tin Hi ~~ of ^1 Phil l r one of the chief forces of history up till

now, marufests itself also in the ruling class as the division of mental and material lLabour, so that inside this class one part appears as the thinkers of the class fits active, cox~:cep~ive ideologists, who make the formation of the illusions of the class about itself their chief source of livelihoods, while *tern' attitude to these ideas and illusions is more passive and

 

Unreceptive, because they are in reality the active members of this class and have less time to make up illusions and ideas about themselves. Within this class this cleavage can even develop into a certain opposition and 

The Ruling Class and the Ruling Pleas ^.

 

^. . (with Engels) (1845- 6)c1 J

The ideas of the ruling class are In every epoch the ruling ideas: i.e.^r the class which is the ruling merit force of society is at the same time its   ~ material pro~uction at its disposal, consequently also controls the means of mental production so that the ideas of those who lack the means of menial pro~uction are on the whole subject to it. The ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of dominant mate id relations, the ~om~ant material relators grasped as ideas; hence of the relations which malce the one class the ruling one, therefore, the ideas of its dominance. The in~iviclua~s composing the ruling class possess among other things consciousness, and therefore think. Insofar, therefore, as they rule as a class and determine the extent and compass of an historical epoch, it is selfevi~en~ that they do this in its whole range, hence among other things rule also as thinkers, as producers of ideas, and regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age: thus their ideas are the ruling ideas of the epoch. For instance, in an age and in a country where royal power, aristocracy and bourgeoisie are contending for domination and where, therefore, domination is sharecrop the doctrine of the separation of powers proves to be the dominant idea and is expressed as art '^teternal laws ~ruling inteZZect^lcal force. The class which has the means of:

AH If ~ tin Hi ~~ of ^1 Phil l r one of the chief forces of history up till

now, marufests itself also in the ruling class as the division of mental and material lLabour, so that inside this class one part appears as the thinkers of the class fits active, cox~:cep~ive ideologists, who make the formation of the illusions of the class about itself their chief source of livelihoods, while *tern' attitude to these ideas and illusions is more passive and

 

Unreceptive, because they are in reality the active members of this class and have less time to make up illusions and ideas about themselves. Within this class this cleavage can even develop into a certain opposition and 

The Ruling Class and the Ruling Ideas 61

 

hostility between the two parts, but whenever a practical collision occurs in which the class itself is endangered they automatically vanish, in which case there also vanishes the appearance of the ruling ideas being not the ideas of the ruling class and having a power distinct from the power of this class. The existence of revolutionary ideas in a particular period presupposes the existence of a revolutionary class....

 

If now in considering the course of history we detach the ideas of the ruling class from the ruling class *self and attribute to them an independent existence, if we confine ourselves to saying that these or those ideas were dominant at a given time, without bothering ourselves about the conditions of production and the producers of these ideas, if we thus ignore the individuals and world conditions which are the source of the ideas, then we can say, for instance, that during the time the aristocracy was dominant, the concepts honour, loyalty, etc., were dominant, during the dominance of the bourgeoisie the concepts freedom, equality, etc. The ruling class itself on the whole imagines this to be so. This conception of history, which is common to all historians, particularly since the eighteenth century, will necessarily come up against the phenomenon that ever more abstract ideas hold sway, i.e., ideas which increasingly take on the form of universality. For each new class which puts itself in the place of one ruling before it is compelled, merely in order to carry through its aim, to present its interest as the common interest of all the members of society, that is, expressed in ideal form: it has to give its ideas the form of universality, and present them as the only rational, universally valid ones. The class making a revolution comes forward from the very start, if only because it is opposed to a class, not as a class but as the representative of the whole of society, as the whole mass of society confronting the one ruling class. It can do this because initially its interest really is as yet mostly connected with the common interest of all other non-ruling classes, because under the pressure of hitherto existing conditions its interest has not yet been able to develop as the particular interest of a particular class. Its victory, therefore, benefits also many individuals of other classes which are not winning a dominant position, but only insofar as it now enables these individuals to raise themselves into the ruling class....

 

Once the ruling ideas have been separated from the ruling individuals and, above all, from the relations which result from a given stage of the mode of production, and in this way the conclusion has been reached that history is always under the sway of ideas, it is very easy to abstract from these various ideas "the Idea", the thought, etc., as the dominant force in histor,v, and thus to consider all these separate ideas and concepts as "forms of self-determination" of the Concept developing in history. It follows then naturally, too, that all the relations of men can be derived from the concept of man, man as conceived, the essence of man, Man. This has been done by speculative philosophy. Hegel himself confesses . . . that he 

62 Ma rx R n ~ E r^lge I s

 

"has considered the progress of the concept only' and has represented in history the "true theodicy" Now one can go back again to the producers of "the concepts to the theorists, ideologists and philosophers, and one comes then to the conclusion that the philosophers the thinkers as such^r have al all times been dominant in history: a concision as we see, already expressed by Beget. ...

 

This historical method which reigned in Germany, and especially the reason why, must be explained from its connection with the illusion of ideologists in general, e.g., the illusions of the jurists, politicians ~inc~uding the practical statesmen, from the dogmatic c3ream~ngs and distortions of these fellows; this is explained perfectly easily from their practical position in life, their job, and the division of About.

 

Whilst in ordinary life every shopkeeper is very well able to distinguish between what somebody professes to be and what he really is, our historiography has not yet won this trivial insight. It takes every epoch at -its word and believes that everything it says and imagines about itself is _,                                                                                                            eology

best it,'

 620~6~, -So ~~ Stuff ; ~~ ~~ ~~ ~^s~-71

lienated forms of consciousness can be said to be forms of ideology. In the early works Marx is particularly concerned with the role of religion which is said to justify and reinforce alienation by shifting people's consciousness away from the problems of everyday life towards higher things while also making a virtue out of misery and suffering. Religion offers comfort, but not a solution to social problems. It does not cure but instead deadens the pain. As the well known saying goes:

 

Religious suffering IS at one and the same time the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world and the soul of soulless conditions, It is the opium of the people. Marx 1975e: 244)

 

- ~ de^Rcrihe~ roli~l~^Sn ~~ en ideology beck ~ mystifying picture

tact rho source ~~ roll Lou l~o~lo~y Jury ''I h^l^l^l stare Add Inlay girl duds rolls gion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are in an inverted world' (Marx 1975e: 244). Ideology, then, has an organic link with real social relations, but it produces a mystifying picture of them. This theme is developed by Marx and Engels in The German Ideology where it is argued that the production of ideas and conceptions in our consciousness is interwoven with our material activity. Such things as morality and religion, although they have the semblance of independence, are really the product of (imperfect) material intercourse. Ideology is an illusory representation of our species-being. It is obfuscatory in that it blurs the real conflicts and contradic tions of social life. Marx and Engels write that the phantoms formed in the human brain are sublimates of our material life processes (Marx and Engels 1965: 37-38).

 

In The German Ideology Marx and Engels continue to describe ideology as an 'inversion' of material life:                                                ~

 

If in all ideology men and their circumstances appear upside down as in a camera obscura, this phenomenon arises just as much from their historical life-pracesses~ as the inversion of objects on the retina does from their physical life-process. (Marx and Engels 1965: 37)

There is a danger of this portrayal of ideology as an inversion of the world becoming slightly mechanistic in that the dominant ideology is but an inverted reflection of real economic relations. As we will see, in the 1859 Preface, ideology becomes part of the superstructure of society, something that is determined by the economic base. If ideology is presented here as a reflection of the economic base of society, The German Ideology also presents ideology as an instrument of the ruling class:

 

The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas i.e. the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production . . . the ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of the dominant material relations material relationships. (Marx and Engels 1965 61)

 

We must decide whether to read such a passage as an indication that the ruling ideology narrowly reflects material conditions, or whether it simply means that those classes who have control over economic and material resources are better placed to dominate social, cultural and political life. The latter need not mean that the leading ideas in these domains neatly reflect the dominant economic interests. The fact that certain groups have access to economic resources dogs mean that they can influence the political and cultural sphere (as a study _C ~~..~,^3^r.c^l~ nrn^l~riet~rg^h^j^u clearly shows). But although the economic 

structure of society does tend to produce the ruling ideas, how these ideas are expressed or articulated depends upon many other social, cultural and political factors.    Ideology is seen as a form of consciousness, describing a set of ideas or beliefs, or different theories, outlooks and ways of seeing the world. However, for Marxists it has a negative connotation best expressed in Engels' remark that ideology is false consciousness. At the very least ideology is said to be partial or misleading. Ideology may represent the way that things appear to us in our day-to-day interactions, but this appearance may not be the whole picture. Invoking the dialectical distinction between essence and appearance, we can say that while the capitalist system may appear to be based on free and fair exchange, the real essence of capitalist relations - as we will see, the production of surplus value - remains hidden. In later works like Capital Marx ~                ret strongly ties ideology to a process he calls fetishism whereby things becomes ~3~^11;~\~ ^1 ~( identified by their appearance rather than true nature.                                                      l   The concept of estrangement is now given a more a precise definition. It is no longer simply the estrangement of human essence by private property but the way that workers are dominated by social forms that are real and yet hide their true natures. While many workers believe they are doing a fair day's work for a fair day's wage, the wage form hides the real nature of the production process and the extraction of surplus labour from the producer. Marx also talks of the fetishisation of the commodity form which presents the social characteristics of commodities as natural and intrinsic to them:

 

ensuring that human action helps to reproduce societ^l ~ rather than question its real basis.

 

This leads to a debate within Marxism as to whether these illusory forms are in themselves sufficient to ensure the stability and repri           ' '       --' ist system. In their political writings Marx and Engels 3 silo At ;~P~^C that are generated in the course of class

 

duct^lon of tne cap^l^l~^ly greater stress ore the struggle. Buts as Jorge L~J1~ All a                                                

Larrain points out (Larra~-n 1983), the^l-r account o Geology does tend to emphasise its negative rather than positive effects and it has been left to future Marxists like Lenin and Gramsci to give a more positive account of the recesses he which different classes actively use ideology to advance their

 

peace

 

interests.

 

The mysterious character of the commodity-form consists therefore simply in the fact that the commodity reflects the social characteristics of men's own labour as objective characteristics of the products of labour themselves, as the socio-natural properties of these things . . . It is nothing but the definite social relation between men themselves which assumes here, for them the fantastic form cuff a relation between things. (Marx 1976 164-65)

 

Marx's theory of commodity fetishism shows how ideology is produced by the normal workings of the capitalist system. This ideology helps society to function and it is in fulfilling this cohering function that ideology is often conceived of, within the Marxist tradition, as a social cement that holds together the different parts of the social system. Ideology, therefore, is concerned with the unity and reproduction of the social system, generating the necessary beliefs to ensure that humans act in the right ways. Later writers, particularly within the structuralist tradition will look at how this extends to politics and culture, but in Marx the main focus is on economic forms. Social forms like money, capital, the commodity and the wage are real but at the same time mystifying forms that conceal the essence of capitalist relations through their surface appearances and create the illusion of free and equivalent social relations. The generation of such ideology helps ensure the reproduction of the social system by

 See artists other minimalist surrealism post-modern website also, it is in a different mode,
       quieter than this, less 'political', more nuanced,  at www.philliposullivan.co.nz

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